Turkish steel industry
The 1st mill called Karabuk for Steel Works ( KARDEMIR ) established on 1937. The 2nd mill called Ergli Steel ( ERDEMIR ) to bring forth level merchandises in 1965. The 3rd mill called Iskenderun Steel Works ( ISDEMIR ) besides established to finish long and semi-finished merchandises. ( Economy ) .
Turkish steel industry amounted to 4.2 million dozenss in 1980 after an addition of the electric curve furnace for the private sector after 1960 because of alteration point of free economic activities which developed Turkish economic system and steel industry achieved important advancement to set up electric curve oven mills and economic construction ‘ developments of 1980 by Turkish steel industry. ( Economy ) .
After Turkey signed the understanding in July, 1996 with the European Union of the Commonwealth of Fe and coal and halt all imposts responsibilities on steel trade in July, 1996 to develop it between Turkey and the European Union. ( Economy )
Three full installations for Fe industry for 6.3 million dozenss or 28 % of 3.9 million dozenss of natural steel capacity while 16 electric curve oven mill ‘ capacity is 16.6 million dozenss – approximately 72 % in 2004. ( Economy ) .
Selected for long merchandises for 2004 is 19.4 million dozenss ( 85 % ) from 22.9 million ton of natural steel production capacity to 3 million ( 13 % ) for level merchandises, while the staying 492,000 is for private steel merchandises. ( Economy )
Footings of production processes 69 % of entire production are sensible by the electric curving furnaces in all exports in 1981 from 1.9 % to 10 % in 2004. On the other manus Hsptrkiya in the planetary steel production increased from 0.6 % in 1980 to 2 % in 2004
In production procedures ‘ codifications 69 % of entire production is sensible by Electric Curve Ovens and 31 % ( staying ) by complete installations. Steel merchandises ‘ portion increased in all exports in 1981 from 1.9 % to 10 % in 2004. On the other side, Turkey ‘s quota in the universe steel production increased from 0.6 % in 1980 to 2 % in 2004. ( Economy )
Turkey had entire capacity of 4.4 million dozenss of steel production, 28.4 million dozenss or 70.3 % from this capacity was for long steel merchandises that all used in building sector, 11.3 million dozenss or 28 % of natural steel capacity for level merchandises whereas 717 thousand dozenss ( staying ) for 1.8 % for private steel merchandises. ( SEZGIN, 2009 ) .
Beginning: Turkish Steel Manufacturers Society
Need of exporting extra production peculiarly in long steel merchandises causes several restraints to the sector. To export the extra production which could non be used in local markets by taking ample restraints on steel sector, it is indispensable to hone the ingestion ‘ degrees per capital and take structural jobs of the sector attributed from unbalancing production-consumption. ( Economy )
Erdemir has evolved and amended its capacity and engineering and programs to achieve 4.5 million tons/year production capacity of level steel in 2006 at its Eregli mill. Kardemir is besides be aftering after two old ages to bring forth slab. Erdemir ‘ big capacity and new capacity of level steel came by finishing undertakings at Isdemir for level merchandises in 2010. Those undertakings guide a better balance between long and level production of steel and lessening emphasis on level steel. ( Economy )
Large promotion in last 15 old ages has achieved by Turkish steel mill in both quality, capacity ‘ codifications to be one of the absorbing steel industries in the universe. In 2004 Turkey was among states which increased production after China. ( Economy )
Turkey occupied the 11th rank among the largest states bring forthing steel in the universe and to 3rd rank in Europe ( Turkey returns in World Steel Industry, 2009 ) .
B. In Iran
1st steel company established in Iran after subscribing a contract with the USSR in 1965 for a steel mill in Isfahan. Zob-e-Ahan company rested on coal procedure and detonation oven. Randomly after operation, Zob-e-Ahan had some deficit of bit and quality of coking coal. These jobs, the needed natural stuffs and the big existing resources of natural gas compelled authorities to alter its fabrication steel ‘ engineering into diminishing engineering. ( Hossein Rahdari )
Since 1990 ‘s steel industry addition in Iran has changed engineering for the best usage of available Fe ore and natural gas in local markets. This gave it the 3rd rank in the universe to be after Mexico and Venezuela. ( Hossein Rahdari )
After subscribing a contract with USSR in 1965 for a mill in Isfahan future steel production was placed ( National Iranian Steel Company, NISC ) . Natural gas from Iran to the USSR cause of doing loan ‘s refund by bringings of it. The state-owned mill contains 4 production units utilizing detonation oven treating engineering with capacity with 550.000 dozenss annually. The Isfahan steel mill ( Aryamehr Steel Mill, called after that ( awb-ahan-e efahan ) was authorized and its dramatis personae Fe subdivision executed operation in 1971. Sine clip of a contract to spread out Isfahan steel mill for a capacity of 1.9 million dozenss annually from constructive steel was signed with the USSR. In 1973 working has started but because it was non perfect boulder clay 1983 for political and economic agitate the mill. Businessmens in Iran constructed a 2nd 85.000 dozenss annually turn overing factory ( Sahin ) . Besides at Ahvaz, in 1969 and organizeda 3rd one ( Sahyar, 120.000 dozenss annually ) to bring forth structural steel through importing peal and semi-finished steel merchandises. After that both mills were referred as Iran and INSIG besides built a store for fabricating steel ( by utilizing electric curve oven and lasting casting engineering ) to bring forth semis through runing steel bit. Other two bloom mills to treat sponge Fe ( 400.000 dozenss capacity ) were built in 1972 by the Sahriyar industrial Group, they became nationalized after Islamic revolution and managed now through National Iranian Steel Industries Company. Ahvaz assembled provides both mills. Ahvaz Rolling and Pipe Millss Company were besides built to bring forth 140.000 dozenss of skelp ( molded steel as pipe-making ) annually and Sahriyar Pipe Manufacturing Co. , to bring forth 80.000 dozenss annually with diameter from 0.5-5 inches for types of pipes in 1973, ( Floor, 2005 ) .
The facing jobs at Isfahan mill and private sector ovens ( deficit of old bit and coking coal of quality ) restrained the policy of authorities to spread out steel industry in the state to respond increasing local order. The new developed methods of direct diminishing engineering of procedure presented applicable replacement to the authorities to recognize that Iran possessed rich resources of natural gas and different needed natural stuffs particularly iron ore. NISCO Company in the center of 1970s to bring forth steel merchandises through working direct diminishing procedure adding to mobile related Fe ore mines. To achieve both signed contracts for NISCO and EAC build two complete steel mills in Bandar-e Abbas and Ahvaz and heavy turn overing mill in Ahvaz. ( Floor, 2005 ) .
After Islamic Revolution in 1979 both state-owned companies were combined and it was organized. Now NISCO directs and observes Persian steel industry of its related natural stuffs until its merchandises selling in local and international markets. NISCO ranked 26 in universe ‘s chief steel bring forthing companies ‘ tabular array in 1999 and 2000 as the greatest state-owned steel co. , in the Middle East. It is besides a member of international Steel Institute. ( Floor, 2005 ) .
Steel industry promotion lost its extent ‘ inducement during Iran-Iraq war ( 1980-88 ) . Constructing Ahvaz Steel assembled. In 1974 ( Mojtame -e Flad-e Ahvaz ) had started with a capacity of one-year 2.35 million dozenss It was prepared in a tabular array for 1983 and damage caused hold due to Iraqi air foraies, and mill cast 40 % more than original estimation.. In 1988 steel production ‘ volume did non increase than one-year one million ton. While, in 1999 the volume was 6.3 million dozenss and 6.6 million dozenss in 2000. For old undertakings the most considerable was Ahvaz Steel assembled that built 12 kilometer from Ahvaz in a scope of 300 hour angle. 1st mill prepared to run in 1989 with one-year capacity of 550.00 dozenss. Its 150 ten 150 mm steel casts are provided to NISC and so it transforms them to supports and unit of ammunition bars. ( Floor, 2005 )
( 2nd and 3rd phases 2 ovens and a casing unit ) of Ahvaz Steel assembled were perfect in 1989 and 1990 with capacity of 1.6 million dozenss and its end product is changed to sheets Kavan mill has started in 1976 with holds in 1989 and with volume of 400.000 8-40 millimeter sheets and 300.000 dozenss of slabs whereas it changes slabs to notes and blooms. There is besides 125.00 dozenss of steel notes as capacity in 1988. its capacity of design is 36.000 dozenss. Khuzestan Steel Production assembled in 2002-03 and produced 1,698.000 dozenss of steel, to be added to its one-year production. The production in 2003-04 was around two million dozenss assembled, contains three companies ( Ahvaz Steel Complex and finish them to one company as the best competition in universe market ) . In 1989 extra classs and enlargement besides occurred at Isfahan Steel mill when Italians perfected two lasting projecting units. ( Floor, 2005 ) .
Iran Alloy Steel mill at Yazd was one of the first new undertakings in 1988 and an operational in 1998. 120.000 dozenss of metal steel subdivisions and 20.000 dozenss of metal steel casts were its capacity. It may be increased to 200.000 dozenss subsequently. ( Floor, 205 ) .
The largest industrial undertaking was Mobarakeh Steel Mobarakeh in Iran and has been built on 30 five sequare kilometre as an Italian association with 28 associated mills beside some non-associated factories. , that was declared to be built on the sou’-west of Isfhan and near to Cadormalu coal mines, that raised its concluding merchandises ‘ cost. Mobarakeh Steel Company is attributed to NISCO and besides the 1st complete level steel production mill in Islamic Republic of Iran relied on direct decreased Fe ‘ oxidization EAF-CC engineering. In late 1992 the mill became operational with a capacity of 2.935 million dozenss of one-year liquid steel. Present estimated capacity is at one-year 2.8 million dozenss. As a consequence of mill ‘s enlargement the one-year capacity became 4.1 million dozenss, the contract of enlargement was signed ( Floor, 2005 ) .
Isfahan Steel mill will bring forth 3.6 million dozenss of natural steel. Saba Steel assembled, designed and built by Isfahan Steel mill adds entire of 700.000 dozenss of steel sheets in 2002 to state ‘s one-year production. Khorasan Steel in Nishapur ( 51 % particularly owned, 49 % Isfahan Steel ) sponge Fe mill ‘ capacity will be increased by 1.3 million dozenss. Meybod Steel Project has a capacity of one-year 300.000 of dramatis personae Fe.Zagros Steel undertaking in Kurdistan state possesses a capacity of 70.000 dozenss of one-year dramatis personae Fe and planned to add an agglomeration mill. Capacity of Hormozegan Steel Project is with 1.5 million ton of natural steel. Two contracts were signed in Jan. 2003 with US $ 300-400 1000000s of 1.5 million-tons slab and lime mill, was signed with building Germany ‘s SMS Demag AG, Iran International Engineering Company ( IRITEC ) and its subordinate registered in Italy, Irasco. Estimated USD 140 million contract for put to deathing one-year 1.65 million-tons direct diminishing Fe installation was signed by Germany registered 1s & A ; Metallic elements Engineering GmbH ( MME ) . NISCO will run the mill. Finance will be handled on a buy-back footing, to spread out the Mobarakeh Steel assembled. Both international and local undertakings content will be covered by the buy-back understanding. ( Floor, 2005 ) .
The on-going Bandar-e Abbas Jetty undertaking will set up 5 million dozenss of minerals yearly at the port to prolong programs of spread outing steel industry ( Particularly at Isfahan Steel and Mobarakeh Steel ) and to let ships ‘ docking with a capacity up to 15.000 dozenss. Similarly the handling of 5 million 1s annually will be enabled by the Bandar Imam Jetty undertaking of Fe ore at the Khuzesian Steel. 100.000 chainss for extra dredging for moorage of ships with a capacity of 60.000 dozenss dock of the breakwater. In conformity with the Ministry of industries and Mines 50 % as entire capacity of railroad was specified for conveying volume of National Steel Company in 2000 and more order will be done on rail capacity with addition of capacity.
Steel industry in Meleagris gallopavo:
Developments in the Fe and steel sector possesses a consecutive input on the production ‘ growing. Recently turkey produces a huge scope O Having importance among Fe or steel, projecting merchandise, steel pipes and tubings. In kitchenware and industrial kitchen merchandises Meleagris gallopavo has built a noticeable capacity in recent old ages and raised the exports of these points. ( SEZGIN, 2009 )
With the lasting order which is generated by the Turkish fabrication industry, the casting and forgings industry of Meleagris gallopavo has experienced and practiced flourishing promotion in engineering and market. ( SEZGIN, 2009 )
In conformity with s of the foundry work forces ‘s association of Meleagris gallopavo, over 1200 undertakings and premises in the sector manufactured 1.3 billion dozenss of merchandises with the value 35,000 individuals. ( SEZGIN, 2009 )
Steel production in Turkey achieved a leap with 13.5 per centum in the first one-fourth of 2007, to make 6.1 million dozenss, and do the state the universe ‘s 11-largest manufacturer of natural steel. ( Turkey jumps to 11th in Steel Production )
The universe ‘s natural steel ( steel made by the direct refinement of dramatis personae Fe ) production was 288.6 million dozenss exceeded US $ 2.2 billion in 2008. Turkish steel sector appoints in the first one-fourth of last twelvemonth. It grew 10.3 % in the first three months of this twelvemonth to 318.3 million dozenss. The Turkish Steel Producers Association bulletin released universe steel production ‘s list for January to March. China is in 1st topographic point, to bring forth 93.6 million dozenss last twelvemonth and 114.7 million dozenss this twelvemonth. Last twelvemonth in the same period, Japan produced 28 million dozenss and produced this twelvemonth 29.5 million dozenss. ( Turkey jumps to 11th in Steel Production )
In 2003 Turkey ‘s natural steel production was 16.4 million dozenss in 2002, 18.2 million dozenss and in 2004, 20.4 million dozenss, and in 2005 20.99 million dozenss, and in 2006 23.3 million dozenss and in the first one-fourth of 2007, 6.1 million dozenss. Sheet Steel ‘s production rose merely 253,000 dozenss in last six old ages. In 2003 Sheet steel production was 2.89 million dozenss, in 2004 3.09 million dozenss in 2003, 3.03 million dozenss, in 2006 3.10 million dozenss in 2005 and 3.14 million dozenss. In the first one-fourth of 2006 761,000 dozenss of sheet steel was produced, in this twelvemonth ‘s first one-fourth increasing to 809,000 dozenss. ( Turkey jumps to 11th in Steel Production )
THE TURKISH STEEL INDUTRY ‘S ADVANATGES:
The Turkish steel industry ‘ Competitive place is fundamentally built on:
– Estimate to chief markets, peculiarly the Middle East and Europe.
– Wide handiness of skilled, low-priced work force.
– Efficient binding and experimental enterprisers.
– Holocene substructure.
– Updated engineering in available installations.
– International Quality Certificates.
These characteristics lighten menaces and failings that significantly affect with the importance to vie Turkish steel industry, such as unacceptable entree for natural stuffs. Costss of high energy and non-balancing between flat/long merchandise order and installed capacities. ( Turkey Moves Up In World Steel Industry, 2009 ) .
The Turkish metalworks industry has become In These old ages as a provider to Europe that has vast usage of castings, analogue to the positive production, the Turkish metalworks industry besides showed and outstanding public presentation in exports between 1990’s-2008 ‘s. while in 1990 exports of castings and forgings were with of US $ 22.1 million, exports rose to US $ 4.7 billion in 2008. ( SEZGIN, 2009 )
For production, export and employment, Turkish steel industry is one of the largest sectors. And since 2001, the Turkish steel industry achieved fixed development tendency. In 2008 natural capacity reached around 34.1million dozenss and by 72 % in 2000 from 19.8 million dozenss ( Tureky developed in World Steel Industry, 2009 )
Middle Eastern and Gulf states are chief 1s, with a quota of 58 % in Turkey ‘s entire steel exports, after EU part with 16 % as quota, manufacturers of Turkish steel diverted exports from European Union to Middle East Area in 2008. ( Turkey Moves Up In World Steel Industry, 2009 )
Comparable with 2007 degree, the European Union ‘s portion in Turkey ‘s entire steel exports deviated from 33 % to 16 % , Middle East and Gulf Region ‘s portion exceeded from 44 % to 59 % .Total steel exports in 2008 to the USAincreased as compared to 2007. “ The basic export points to USA are steel pipes and tubings, hot rolled level merchandises, and wire rod ” . ( Turkey Moves Up In World Steel Industry, 2009 ) The planetary crisis ‘ impact negatively, Turkish steel and articles thereof exports reduced 7 % in November 2008 comparable with last month. In December 2008, the divergence has persisted in approaching months as 6 % , in October 2009 15 % , in February 2009 15 % , in March 2009 30 % and in April 2009 58 % . ( SEZGIN, 2009 ) ; the EU is the primary export market, in-between east ranks the 2nd and the far E is the 3rd export market among markets that Turkish steel merchandises are exported. In 2008 steel merchandises were exported to over 180 states in the universe. In the same twelvemonth, chief markets for Turkish steel exports were the UAE, Romania, Qatar, the USA and S. Arabia. ( SEZGIN, 2009 )
Beginning: State Planning Organization ( SPO )
Steel industry in Iran:
The chances of Iran ‘s steel industry is positive due to its natural resources and its cheap skilled labour. Iran was non the merely 1 to add new capacity during the last two decennaries with importance decreased the import measure of the state and on the other manus it increased the export of steel merchandises by upgrading its technological capacity. For illustration, Iran improved its direct manner of reactivation to bring forth Fe with 96 % “metallization, ” which works more actively than the three other traditional processs. Isfhan Steel composite has been developed in bring forthing spongy Fe, and industry macro-weighty trades, etc. Takado investing Company was established and was an property of Isfahan Steel. It began the operation with its employees to hold a great portion in steel industry. Now It contains 13 companies and has 25 attributed companies, and it is connected in most visual aspect of the steel industry. ( Forouzan )
In February 2009 natural steel production showed a lasting decrease in shortly all the chief steel-producing states comparable with the same month in 2008, except for Iran and China. ( February 2009 Raw Steel Production, 2009 )
In February 2000 an addition of 15.9 % by Iran, bring forthing 0.9 million tones of petroleum steel and the Middle East illustrated growing of the production this month. ( February 2009 Raw Steel Production, 2009 )
Steel ingot ‘ duties and sheets were decreased a per centum from 4 % to 1 % to make 0 % eventually in early 2006. This is the reply to the inquiry why Persian steel merchandises ( most of them were produced by domestic mills ) that are viing with their foreign challengers in planetary monetary values and on the Tehran Metal Exchange. Cost of each ton of steel cast in Iran with staying natural stuff and energy is late at $ 400 which shown the cosmopolitan monetary value of around $ 550 produces a net income margin.If there is no trade on steel imports barriers imports no duty policy on steel imports and Iran ‘s competitory advantage in the energy sector it means that the steel industry could remain competitory even after Iran ‘s rank in the WTO. ( Iran economic system reappraisal, 2007 )
During the first 8 months which began 21/03/09 as per Iranian calendar Iran has produced 7,103,666 dozenss of natural steel that 6 % for growing transcending the same period last twelvemonth and during the same period last twelvemonth it was 6,597,215 dozenss of steel. Iran ‘s steel exports was 710,304 dozenss with the sum of $ 303,842,000 in the present twelvemonth and 53 % from the growing over the last twelvemonth. ( Iran ‘s Steel Exports on Rise, 2009 ) .
Firm, the steel industry in Iran has been turning for a long clip now, and has reached the indigenized. Modern twenty-four hours Iran now has the resources and ability to plan, bring forth and work chief steel undertaking without uniting any other states in the procedure. While steel ‘ import & A ; export and related stuffs still occur, this indigenization of steel industry does set Iran in a strong state of affairs in the Middle East in add-on to other universe markets.Also, Iran manages to export steel to India and to other states in Asia that are late sing a major order for steel and related merchandises. ( Iran News Resource )
Many uses for steel within Iran, from Prefabricated Garages to the pins and tools that keep the edifice industry together. Along with these little graduated table undertakings, many Commercial dealingss between Iran and states for steel industry. And Iran ‘s largest steel Factory and exports to a big sum of it. The blast furnace of the works owned by Isfahan with a capacity of 1.4 million dozenss and will assist Iran to settle the issues of supply and orders in the coming old ages. ( Iran News Resource ) .
In March, 2009 Esfahan Steel Company aimed to bring forth 2.24 million dozenss of natural steel and 2.8 million dozenss of finished merchandises. Annual productive capacity of steel in Iran will be 5 million dozenss of steel merchandises and between 3 and 3.5 million dozenss of sponge steel end product by the terminal of March, 2009. It has been said that the local market in Iran has many suites to turn because current capacity is for inquiry. In 2007 with a 9 % rise in natural steel end product production, prognosiss are good shortly in malice of recent planetary economic place negatively.