Theories Of Grameen Bank Founder Professor Muhammad Yunus Economics Essay

Microfinance is the proviso of fiscal services by certain establishments known as MFI ‘s such as Concerted Banks, Community Based-Saving Bank, Credit Unions, development bank to the hapless, low income earners, freelance and little concerns design to turn to to turn to issues of poorness. Harmonizing to MIX in June 2010 there was more than 1800 MFI ‘s in over 100 states, with 92.4 1000000s borrowers and 78.5 1000000s rescuers in the underdeveloped universe. The construct of microfinance was created by Professor Muhammad Yunus laminitis of Grameen bank in Bangladesh. Microfinance includes a scope of services such as microcredit, salvaging, insurance and financess transfer. Traditional Bankss do non supply installations to low income earners ; they provide services to people after measuring the profile of clients harmonizing to certain standards such as wage, recognition history and assets of the clients. Harmonizing to Hernando De Soto ( 1989 ) a Peruvian economic expert hapless people have no assets to supply as collateral to bank when taking a loan, therefore they are non apt to have loans from Bankss. Since hapless people do non hold entree to traditional Bankss they have to impart money with high involvement rates from others beginnings such as pawnbroker and local money loaner sometimes with 100 % involvement rate as adoption from them is fast and flexible.

Over the last 30 old ages MFIs have developed new methods with less collateral to offer little loans to low income earners and has grown quickly in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America where there were few bank substructures and where in some instances more than 80 % of the population did non hold a bank history. Harmonizing to CGAP ( 2008 ) , MFI ‘s are funded by 33 givers of 21 investors such as DFI. Microfinance offers lasting fiscal installations for instruction, wellness, personal exigencies, catastrophes, investing chances to the hapless and it is used as a development tool. MFIs begin as non-profit organisation progressively they are now germinating as net income entities because MFIs are required to hold a banking licence for salvaging services. Some MFIs offers non-financial installations such as wellness services and concern development. In this reappraisal we will analyse and see how microfinance contributes to the economic development of a state and the reappraisal will be focused on creative activity of employment and the authorization of adult females by microfinance.

2.1.1 Professor Muhammad Yunus

Theoretical reappraisal

The construct of microfinance was created by Professor Muhammad Yunus laminitis of Grameen bank in Bangladesh and baronial monetary value victor in 2006.He receives 76 other awards in different states for his work. Professor Yunus obtainded a doctor’s degree in Economics from Vanderbilt University found in Nashville, Tennessee in the United States. During the dearth of 1974 in Bangladesh Professor Muhammad Yunus minor loans of USD27 to 42 hapless households for them to purchase and sell little articles to let them to gain a life. The nonsubjective behind the loan was to cut down poorness in Bangladesh. Grameen bank was an thought generated by Professor Yunus the bank started as a undertaking at the University of Chittagong as a pilot trial to happen different ways of supplying recognition to the hapless in the rural country.

The Grameen bank offered its services to a small town named Jobra near the university ; the undertaking was successful and had the support of Bangladesh cardinal bank in 1979. The bank extends its services to Tangail territory and to other countries of Bangladesh. In 1983 the Bangladesh Government turns the undertaking into an independent bank and Professor Yunus had a grant from the Ford foundation to integrate Grameen bank with the support of two bankers viz. Mary Houghton and Ron Grzywinkski from Shore bank of Chicago. The Ford foundation was established in 1936 it is an independent not-for-profit and nongovernmental organisation which aid in societal alteration, the organisation aid to cut down poorness and aid in human promotion worldwide by offering subsidies and loans to certain organisations.

2.2.2 Empirical survey of

2.2.3 Cooperative bank

Theoretical reappraisal

Empirical reappraisal

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2.2.3 Saving bank

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2.2.4 Credit Union

Common societies

Grameen bank is a Nobel Prize victor corporation founded in 1983, its headquarter is situated in Dhaka in Bangladesh and the bank is known for its solidarity loaning system or banking and is besides known as banking to the hapless. Solidarity loaning is the foundation of microcredit. The word Grameen is derived agencies “ small town ” in Bangladesh, the bank incorporates the 16 determinations which is recited by bank borrowers and which they shall stay to them. The 16 determinations comprises the four rules of Grameen bank which are Discipline, Courage, Unity, and Hard work, and the other 15 determinations are resumed as to better their criterion of life and there is the component of togetherness to make societal activities to better their manner of life. These 16 determinations have a positive impact on the dwellers of Bangladesh where more kids have joined school. The bank has different beginnings of support ; ab initio immense capital was obtained from donor bureau at low rates. During the 1990 ‘s the bank has its majority of capital from the Central bank of Bangladesh and late from the gross revenues of bonds subsidized by its authorities. In 1998 The bank make loan to hapless people in the signifier of microcredit as a consequence of inundation in Bangladesh, the refund rate lessenings but recovered afterwards, USD4.7 one million millions has been loaned in 2005and USD6 billion in 2008.

Nowadays the bank has expand more and offers more loans to the hapless and in 2006 it has up to 2100 subdivisions in Bangladesh. Due to Grameen ‘s success more than 40 states including the United States in 2008 where 12.6 % of the population live below the poorness line have been inspired by the bank to do undertakings with the same position, merely Africa which has slowdown behind. The World Bank has financed the undertakings. The bank is owned by the hapless borrowers of the bank of which the bulk are adult females as the borrowers own 94 % of the equity and the staying 6 % is owned by the Government of Bangladesh. The bank has grown to a big extent between 2003-2007 in 2003 the Numberss of borrowers have doubled and in October 2007 the figure of clients was 7.34 Million of which 97 % were adult females and had a staff of 24703, in 2468 subdivisions over 80257 small towns that is the subdivisions have spread in more small towns since they were situated in merely 43681 small towns in 2003 and the refund rate. Since the bank ‘s started to run it has USD6.55 one million millions as loans USD87 billion has been repaid and the bank claim repayment rate of 98.35 % up from the 95 % of 1998 but once more the Wall Street diary in 2001claim that it doubted the 95 % and the accounting criterion used by Grameen bank. Grameen started to diversify in the 1980 where it develops into a multi aspect group with net income and non-profit-making group among which are Grameen piscaries foundation for piscaries undertaking, Grameen Agriculture Foundation for irrigation undertaking, Grameen fund and Grameen Trust.Grameen believe that the construct of giving charity will promote charity whereas the construct of microcredit will assist hapless people to go out poorness and the bank invest in kids instruction by supplying scholarships and loans for higher instruction.

Grameen Foundation

PPI

Microfinance in developed states

2.3.3 Theoretical survey of

Microcredit

Theoretical survey

Harmonizing to Boudreaux and Cowen ( 2008 ) microcredit is a micro thaumaturgy and makes the life of the hapless becomes easier, it is an alternate to traditional loaning of Bankss. Alternatively of giving charity to the hapless, microcredit is a human manner of supplying finance to hapless people as harmonizing to the Chinese adage “ Give a adult male a fish and you feed him for a twenty-four hours. Teach a adult male to angle and you feed him for a life-time ” , it is an investing in human capital. Microcredit is an invention in the universe of finance it forms portion of microfinance, the construct did non be before the 1970ss, and it is a little loan seldom transcending USD200 and normally below USD50 made to the hapless or people with low income with small or no collateral. Microcredit clients are those that are considered as near the poorness line, the loans allow micro enterprisers to bring forth an income for a better criterion of life. Grameen bank based itself on three C ‘s viz. Character that is the dependability of the people the Capacity to manage financess and the Capital which is the assets of the borrower such as nest eggs. Microcredit is deriving more credibleness in the finance industry and many big organisations are developing microfinance plans for future growing although at the start many were pessimistic about the hereafter of microcredit in the fiscal system. 50 % of the population in many developing states is self employed and these loans of three months to three old ages with little involvement rates and no collateral aid hapless people to go financially independent and assist to cut down poorness. The microcredit plans helps people to accomplish high refund rate even sometimes more than that of traditional banking because of the system of equal support. In the instance of the Grameen bank where there are solidarity groups and it is besides known as societal capital and is composed of 5 members and each member is responsible for each other success and refund, but are non warrants or apt if members default. Nevertheless the members make certain that each one is taking its duty to do refund this act as a motivation factor for the members. Sometimes in existent life when a member of the group defaults the other four collaborates together and lend to pay on behalf of the defaulting member.

The microcredit system of Grameen bank is based on Trust and there is no conventional contract between the bank and the borrowers, but the borrowers must hold a little history with the bank known as group fund which acts as an insurance in instance of an exigency. Women history for 97 % of the microcredit client of Grameen bank and this aid to authorise adult females as they get entree to resources and have a say in determination devising since they become micro enterprisers. Grameen bank has records of 98 % refund rate from adult females which is in contradiction with Wall street Journal which says that there is one fifth of the entire loan of the bank is delinquent but Grameen bank claims in bend that the criterion of life of the hapless has increased that is they are esteeming the 16 determinations of the bank and are able to do a refund of around 4USD per hebdomad.

Empirical reappraisal of microcredit

Grameen bank develop several plan for the hapless of which one of them is the fighting members plan in 2003 which is different from the 5 group member borrowing it consists of administering involvement free loans to mendicants in Bangladesh where the banking regulations do non use and where the refund period is arbitrary for USD1.5 about 3.4 US cents and if they borrower default they are already covered under an insurance paid by the bank itself. This type of loan encouraged the mendicants to bring forth an income by the gross revenues of inexpensive points, there is a record shown in the microfinance acme 2006 that loans taken by mendicants are about USD 833,150 and the refund is USD 496,900 that is 59.64 % refund rate which harmonizing to me is rather encouraging since it is more half of the money loaned.

Certain developed states such as in Canada have attempt to used the Grameen theoretical account but the undertaking has failed due to certain factors such as the hazard profile of clients, no gustatory sensation for joint liability that is the no solidarity between the borrowers, high operating expense costs therefore the undertaking does non stand without subsidies in Canada which is contrary to the USA where microcredit has been successful. Sometimes microcredit is subjected to job such as self-interest and asymmetric information. The first Grameen subdivision has made a loan of $ 1.5 million in the USA among which was 600 adult females and the refund was really high up to 99 % . Peoples took the loan to sell points such as flowers, jewellery apparels and Grameen bank remains undaunted while others collapsed during crisis. Despite the planetary recession, The President Barack Obama announced the creative activity of $ 100 million financess to impart as microcredit to the western hemisphere.

Micro Salvaging

Apart from microcredit the demand of fiscal users is increasing, there is demand from 19 million possible rescuers to hold entree to micro salvaging services. They need services that are flexible and adapted to them. Traditionally nest eggs is done by people at place or by normal Bankss at a high cost which was non encouraging to the hapless. Microfinance has brought services such as nest eggs to hapless people. Savings aid people to experience safer and more stable, and assist hapless people to pull off their money handily. Micro salvaging consists of little sedimentations, footings and involvement rate that is flexible to clients at the same clip Bankss used the money to do loans to hapless people.

Recognition Insurance

In 2002 chance organisation started to give micro insurance services. Its ‘ subordinate MicroEnsure was the first establishment offering micro insurance services and supply protection against many hazards for the hapless. Stakeholders and local insurance worked in coaction with MicroEnsure to develop and fit the demands of the hapless. The insurance provided were low-cost, they offered agricultural, medical, belongings and life policy supplying a safety cyberspace in instance of catastrophes with mean premium of USD 1.5 for household with 5members. Medical policies covered even people already enduring from diseases and even those enduring from HIV viruses.

Actually MicroEnsure is offering insurance in 5 states to over 1million hapless people and was one of the second bests of fiscal times in June 5 for sustainability award and receives a grant from The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to spread out itself in other states.

Microcredit transportation

Microcredit Summit

The first microcredit acme was held at Washington D.C. on the 24 February 1997, 137 states were present at the acme with 2900 participants. In the acme they launch a run to make 100 million hapless households that is those people populating below the poorness line, with those populating with less than USD1.25 a twenty-four hours adjusted to the buying power para ( based on 2005 monetary values ) all around the universe within nine old ages particularly to authorise adult females as micro enterprisers. The aim was about achieved in 2005 and in November 2006 the run re-launched to 2015 with two new aims was ensured that 175 1000000s hapless households particularly adult females are obtaining recognition for self employment and for concern and fiscal services. The 2nd aim is to guarantee that 100 1000000s poorest household ‘s world-wide addition to USD1 a twenty-four hours adjusted to the buying power para from 1990 to 2015.

The microcredit run is the undertaking of the Educational fund from the USA an organisation committed to stop hungriness and poorness around the universe. The run group together people such as microcredit practicians, giver bureaus, international fiscal establishments, non -governmental organisations, advocators, and other people involved with microcredit for effectual and efficient patterns. In August 2008 the World Bank claim that about 280 million households live below the poorness line with less than USD1.25 day-to-day. The four nucleus subjects of the acme are making the poorest, authorising adult females, constructing self sufficient and sustainable MFIs, guaranting that microfinance has a positive impact on the lives of the hapless

The extroverted Microfinance Summit 2011 will be held in Valladolid, Spain, the acme is believed to better the microfinance sector and to accomplish the Millennium Development Goals. A 100 states and over 2000 participants are expected in the acme. In the docket there will be the presentation of new merchandises, occupation creative activity with microfinance and best patterns among other issues will addressed.

Poverty

It has been proved that microfinance is the tool to assist hapless household moved out of poorness and to lend to the economic system of a state. Surveies have shown with the microcredit provided by Grameen bank in Bangladesh 48 % of the households below the poorness line have issue from poorness. Harmonizing to some surveies with microcredit 5 % of the hapless could go out the poorness line each twelvemonth as it is an investing in human capital and better people ‘s life. Microcredit is an chance for the hapless to recognize their dreams.

Employment Coevals

Microcredit helps in the coevals of employment ; therefore it helps in economic development and in a sustainable agencies of income. With the microcredit hapless people are able to gain a life by selling low priced points or to even spread out their concerns at the same clip they become sustainable and create employment for other people.Microfinance is a mean of making employment and bettering the life of hapless people.

Womans Microfinance more specifically microcredit is an instrument used for the authorization of adult females it increase societal public assistance and enhances gender equity. Microcredit helps adult females to go economic histrions in power. We have heard a batch about the function of adult females in microfinance, 94 % of the borrowers of Grameen bank are adult females and 97 % of the borrowers are proprietors in the equity of the bank, harmonizing to Rankin ( 2002 ) the ground behind this is because adult females invest more in the household than work forces because of their nurturing inherent aptitudes and are more devoted towards their households. Women play a important function in the economic growing of a state by first bettering their household life, their communities and states. In the microfinance acme commissariats are made for the poorest households around but particularly for adult females as they form an of import portion of microfinance. Womans are targeted because they are the one in the household to up convey the kids and poorness of the adult females consequences in illiteracy of their kids and other societal jobs. Mohhamud Yunus ( 1999 ) explains that adult females are more willing to work harder to raise their kids and to travel their households out of poorness, whereas when a destitute male parent earns an income his precedences will more around himself than for his household. In 2005 Kofi Anan promote the twelvemonth as the UN microfinance twelvemonth for authorization of adult females. Surveies have shown that adult females are good income earner and that adult females have a high refund rate. In Nepal with the Women empowerment plan 68 % of the adult females are able to provide for the demands of the household by directing their kids to school, purchasing and selling belongingss which usually was the responsibility of the hubby. Access to microcredit has addition from 7.6 million in 1997 to 26.8 million in 2001 among which are 21 million adult females the entree to loans enabled them to do economic determinations, to purchase assets and resources and to go more independent.

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We will look at two among many microcredit narratives of adult females the first 1 is that of Janet Deval from Haiti who was an illiterate adult females with a hearing job she had five kids, her hubby refused to pay the school fees but she knew that instruction was of import for the kids. Janet sold goods in Hinche and pay for her kids schools on her ain. She started to take literacy categories at Fonkoze a microcredit establishment in Haiti. Afterwards Janet knew how to compose her name and could things that she could n’t make before since she was ne’er sent to school. Later she took a loan from Fonkoze to be able to spread out her concern at the market to be able to go on to direct her kids to school, without the microfinance establishment Janet would hold been unable to read and compose and to even spread out her concern therefore she would hold been able to educate her kids.

The 2nd instance is that of Anastacia Abella from the Philippines, she lived as a homesteader in Manila, she lived with her four kids in a shelter made from bit, the small town have frequent blackout therefore she decided to seek for jar in the refuse to do lamps, after adorning the lamps, she sell 150 of them each twenty-four hours and do a little net income. She took a loan at Opportunity international and she was to do 300 lamps a twenty-four hours, the loan allows her to do greater net income and be able to better her criterion of life.

Empirical reappraisal Social capital is an of import constituent of microcredit it is used as a tool in development programmes. Social A survey was carried out by Forbes Marshall Co.Ltd a good known company in Maharashtra, India as an enterprise of CSR about the impact of societal capital on societal authorization carried utilizing primary informations from 217 adult females all members of SHG by utilizing random sampling.15 variables were used utilizing Likert graduated table to cognize the perceptual experiences of adult females about the microfinance plans. The decision of the survey was that the societal capital created aid in adult females empowerment but that the organisation must give appropriate support and policies to the societal capital such as capacity edifice programmes to assist determination devising.

Islamic microfinance

Critics of microfinance

Microfinance in Mauritius

To organize the activities of Grameen Foundation, we have staff based at our central offices in Washington, D.C. , at the Grameen Technology Center in Seattle, Washington and in offices in Los Angeles, Ghana and the Philippines.A Overseeing the staff is a Board of Directors. Our Grameen Foundation Advisory Council and our Board Committees and Councils nurture new thoughts, inventions, strategic thought and plan development. Much of Grameen Foundation ‘s work is done by our web of voluntaries who are committed to our mission, some of whom have been working in partnership with us for more than ten old ages.

Alex Counts, President & A ; CEO

Alex Counts is President and CEO of Grameen Foundation, a non-profit-making organisation focused on enabling the hapless to get away poorness, utilizing microfinance and engineering. Counts founded Grameen Foundation and became its Chief executive officer in 1997, after holding worked in microfinance and poorness decrease for 10 old ages. Since its modest beginnings, sparked by a $ 6,000 seed grant provided by Grameen Bank laminitis ( and establishing Grameen Foundation board member ) Professor Muhammad Yunus, Grameen Foundation has grown to a taking international human-centered organisation with an one-year budget of about $ 25 million.

A Cornell University alumnus, Counts ‘ committedness to poverty obliteration deepened as a Fulbright bookman in Bangladesh, where he witnessed advanced poorness solutions being developed by Grameen Bank. He trained under Dr. Muhammad Yunus, the laminitis and pull offing manager of Grameen Bank, and co-recipient of the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize.

Counts has propelled Grameen Foundation ‘s doctrine through his Hagiographas, including Small Loans, Large Dreams: How Nobel Prize Winner Muhammad Yunus and Microfinance Are Changing the World. Counts has besides been published in The

Washington Post, the International Herald Tribune, the Stanford Social Innovation Review, The Miami Herald, The Christian Science Monitor and elsewhere. In 2007 he received the Distinguished Alumni Award from Horace Mann School.

Counts chairs the Fonkoze USA board of managers and is the immediate past chair of Project Enterprise ‘s board. He sits on the Advisory Council of the Center for Financial Inclusion, the Advisory Board of the ThinkGlobal Arts Foundation, and he co-chairs the Microenterprise Coalition. He serves on the Board of Directors of two societal concerns: Grameen-Jameel Pan-Arab Microfinance Ltd. and YouChange PuRong Information Advisory Co. Ltd. , which promote microfinance and related attempts in the Arab World and China severally.

Before taking Grameen Foundation, Counts served as the legislative manager of RESULTS and as a regional undertaking director for CARE-Bangladesh. He speaks fluid Bengali and lives in Washington, DC, with his married woman, Emily, and their cat, Seymour.

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Peter Bladin, Executive Vice President, Programs and Regions

Peter Bladin is Executive Vice President of Programs and Regions at Grameen Foundation, and the Founding Director of the Grameen Foundation Technology Center. Under his leading, the Technology Center has led the microfinance industry in driving relevant and appropriate engineering invention, making information and communications enterprises that benefit the universe ‘s poorest.

Peter was a founding member of the MTN-Village Phone board, the first public-private partnership to widen telecommunications entree to the rural hapless. He is a frequent talker at international telecommunication and microfinance conferences, and is an Executive Board Member of the International Telecommunications Union Connect the World enterprise. Peter is besides actively involved with assorted Seattle-based non-profits, including Global Partnerships and Social Venture Partners. Before fall ining Grameen Foundation, Peter worked for Microsoft for more than 10 old ages, pull offing assorted undertakings and sections during his term of office. He has a grade in Mathematicss from the University of Uppsala, Sweden.

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Jennifer Meehan, CEO, Asia Region

Jennifer Meehan joined Grameen Foundation in February 2005 as the establishing Director of the Capital Markets Group, during which clip she led the development and launch of the Growth Guarantees merchandise. She later led Grameen Foundation ‘s strategic planning procedure before taking on her current function in January 2009.A She is based in Hong Kong.

Jennifer has lived in Asia – Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Japan, and China – since 1996.A She started her calling in the formal fiscal sector with Chase Manhattan Bank ( now JP Morgan Chase ) , but made the passage to microfinance following the 1997 Asiatic Financial Crisis.A Prior to fall ining Grameen Foundation, she worked extensively with poverty-focused MFIs throughout Asia including CASHPOR, the Asian web of Grameen Bank Replicators, on fiscal direction, concern planning and funding. She has besides consulted for Calvert Social Investment Foundation, among others, and published a figure of articles. She was a founding investor and, until October 2007, served on the Investment Committee of the Aavishkaar India Micro Venture Capital Fund.

Jennifer graduated summa semen laude, Phi Beta Kappa with a B.A. in International Affairs from George Washington University.

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Alberto Solano, CEO, Americas

Alberto Solano joined Grameen Foundation in October 2009 and provides leading and direction inadvertence for our portfolio and activities across the Americas.A He besides serves as our senior representative in the region.A He has more than 10 old ages experience in microfinance, chiefly in Latin America, and most late was the Latin America Program Director for Global Partnerships.

He antecedently worked with the Central American Bank for Economic Integration ‘s microfinance and proficient aid plans in Honduras, and ran his ain consulting company specialising in sustainable development and microfinance.

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Julia Soyars, General Counsel and Assistant Corporate Secretary

Julia Soyars joined Grameen Foundation in March 2005 and started the Grameen Foundation legal department.A After working five old ages in energy and authorities catching jurisprudence and judicial proceeding at Pillsbury, Madison and Sutro in Washington, Julia joined the legal section at The American National Red Cross, where she spent eleven old ages managing domestic and international minutess. Julia is a founding member of the Microfinance Council of Counsels and is a member of the District of Columbia Bar. Julia holds a JD Magna Cum Laude from Syracuse University.

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Joshua Tripp, Chief Financial Officer

Joshua Tripp is Grameen Foundation ‘s Chief Financial Officer.A Joshua joined Grameen in 2007 after passing seven old ages at Community Wealth Ventures ( CWV ) , most late as a Vice President.A In his clip at CWV, Joshua worked with tonss of advanced non-profit-making organisations, assisting them to measure, program and launch for-profit concern ventures to increase their sustainability.A He became an expert in fiscal planning and capitalisation of “ societal endeavors, ” and was a presenter at several industry conferences and seminars.A Before fall ining CWV, Joshua was a Undertaking Manager for GS Telecom, a start-up orbiter telecommunications company in Ghana.A Prior to GS Telecom, Joshua worked in the investing banking division of Deutsche Bank, where he worked on a assortment of public equity fundings, private arrangements and amalgamation and acquisition minutess in the engineering industry.A Joshua has a BA in Economics from Williams College and an MBA from the George Washington University School of Business.

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Sandra Adams, Vice President, External Affairs

Sandra Adams brings three decennaries of non-profit-making development, communications and event selling experience to Grameen Foundation. Throughout her calling her focal point has been on bettering the position of adult females in places with the AAUW Educational Foundation, American Nurses Association, and National Breast Cancer Coalition and on environmental protagonism through her work with the National Parks Conservation Association and The Wilderness Society. An devouring pupil and advocate of philanthropic gift, she was elected Chair of the Association of Fundraising Professionals national board of managers, served as President of their Washington, DC chapter and is one of merely 150 people to hold achieved the Advanced Certified Fundraising Executive certificate. She was named Washington ‘s Outstanding Fund Raising Executive of the Year in 1994. Sandra has served on the boards of EarthShare and CFRE International. She holds a Bachelor ‘s grade from Mercyhurst College, a Master ‘s from the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and a certification in Teaching English as a Second Language from Georgetown University.

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Camilla Nestor, Vice President of Microfinance Programs

Camilla Nestor joined Grameen Foundation in August 2005 and antecedently served as Growth Guarantees Manager and Director of the Capital Management and Advisory Center. She was appointed Vice President for Microfinance in April 2009. She has 14 old ages of experience in microfinance and commercial banking. Before fall ining Grameen Foundation, she worked in Citigroup ‘s Structured Corporate Finance Department where she executed credit-enhanced debt fundings for emerging markets houses in Africa, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Prior to fall ining Citi, she spent five old ages on the land in Southeast Asia, the Balkans, and Africa working with microfinance establishments on start-up, new merchandise development, and capital elevation. Camilla holds an MBA and a Masterss degree in International Affairs from Columbia University and a unmarried man ‘s grade in Political Science and International Relations from Colorado College. She speaks Bahasa Indonesia and is familiar in Gallic.

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David Edelstein, Vice President of Technology Programs, and Director of the Grameen Foundation Technology Center

David Edelstein is Director of the Grameen Foundation Technology Center and Vice President of Technology Programs at Grameen Foundation.A As the leader of Grameen Foundation ‘s work in engineering, he guides plans that create advanced and sustainable attacks to using engineering for the benefit of the universe ‘s poor.A This includes attempts to develop services that can be accessed on widely available nomadic phones, in spheres such as wellness and agribusiness, to better lives and livelihoods.A It besides encompasses attempts in engineering for microfinance, including an open-source package enterprise designed to speed up the growing of microfinance establishments ( Mifos ) and attempts to enable the hapless to reassign financess usingA nomadic phones.

Before fall ining Grameen Foundation, David spent three old ages at Microsoft, planing concern theoretical accounts to supply low-cost engineering merchandises for people in emerging markets. David besides worked in Brazil for four old ages with the confer withing house McKinsey & A ; Company, where he developed concern schemes tailored to the demands of consumers and concerns in developing states.

Previously, David conducted economic analyses and evaluated public policy with the White House Council of Economic Advisers and with Resources for the Future. He holds a Bachelor ‘s grade in Environmental Science and Economics from Colby College and a Master ‘s grade in Economics and Public Policy from Princeton University.

A

Grameen Heritage

Inspired by the work of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, Grameen Foundation was created to speed up the impact of microfinance on the universe ‘s poorest people, particularly adult females.

Started in 1976 by Professor Muhammad Yunus with a mere $ 27, Grameen Bank now serves more than 7 million hapless households with loans, nest eggs, insurance and other services. The bank is to the full owned by its clients and has been a theoretical account for microfinance establishments around the universe. In 2006, Professor Yunus and Grameen Bank jointly received the Nobel Peace Prize. President Barack Obama awarded Professor Yunus the 2009 Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Although we are independent organisations, Grameen Foundation and Grameen Bank maintain an enduring relationship. Grameen Foundation President Alex Counts trained under and worked closely with Professor Yunus during his six-year term of office in Bangladesh.A Professor Yunus was a founding member of Grameen Foundation ‘s board of managers and presently serves as manager emeritus.A

Grameen Foundation seeks to foster the Grameen Bank bequest and aims by back uping microfinance establishments and poverty-fighting organisations that embody its vision and values on a planetary graduated table.

The Grameen Family of Companies

A

Grameen Bank ( GB ) reversed conventional banking pattern and created a system based on common trust, answerability, engagement and creativeness. They provide recognition to the poorest of the hapless in rural Bangladesh, without any collateral.A As of August 2009, Grameen Bank had 7.94 million borrowers, 97 per centum of whom are adult females. With 2,559 subdivisions, Grameen Bank services 84,652 small towns, covering about 100 per centum of the entire small towns in Bangladesh.

A

Under its Grameen Bank Replication Program, Grameen Trust supports and promotes poverty- focused microcredit plans worldwide. It organizes Dialogue Programs for possible replicators and provides preparation and proficient aid to reproduction undertakings. To day of the month, it has supported 141 reproduction spouses in 38 states.

A

Grameen America is a microfinance company whose mission is to assist relieve poorness through entrepreneurship. It provides fiscal services, such as loans, nest eggs plans and a tract to set up recognition to the working hapless, particularly adult females, in the United States.