## Introduction

In the study that follows, I talk about the game of Oligopoly played between 5 houses belonging to big excavators industry in the state Chindia, each selling a homogenous merchandise. The basic subject of the game is the fact that every house can exert an of import influence on the price-output policies of his challengers. All the houses are mutualist. The initial cost construction and the selling portion is same for all the houses in the industry. All the houses have an option of make up one’s minding monetary value, advertisement budget and production for each period. The game is played for 14 periods and expected to achieve high market portion and high net incomes at the terminal of period 14. As house 41 in Chindia excavators industry I have been able to achieve the highest market portion and highest net incomes as compared to other houses in the industry.

## Game theory:

Farnham ( 2010 ) stated that game theory comprises a set of mathematical tools for analyzing state of affairss in which participants draw several strategic moves and present different results or pay-offs related to those moves.

The behavior and the results in this market such as pricing, advertisement and end product schemes followed by the houses of the excavators industry in Chindia are explained on the footing of Game theory. For easy comparing I have applied the game theory among my house ( steadfast 41 ) and taken other 4 houses as competition houses to explicate the schemes. Here neither steadfast 41 nor rivalry houses has a dominant scheme this is because the oligopoly houses are mutualist and the house 41 ‘s best action depends on what competition houses do.

## Figure 1

Figure 1 shows the final payment matrix and the possible actions among the houses for the pricing scheme. As a house 41 I was unaware of what competition house ‘s scheme towards monetary value would be. So, I decided to bear down low monetary value irrespective of what other houses do to derive the high market portion. In the game comparatively I have coated the lesser monetary value and attained high market portion. Figure 2 shows the mean market portion of the houses in excavator industry for the 14 periods.

Nash Equilibrium

## Figure 3

Figure 3 shows the final payment matrix and the possible results among the houses for the scheme towards capacity. As a house 41 I was unaware of what competition house ‘s scheme towards capacity would be. So, I decided to increase my capacity irrespective of what other houses did to derive the high market portion with high net incomes.

Table 1 shows the entire capacity and the net income figures among the houses in Chindia excavators industry at the terminal of the game.

Firm 40

200

2,42,81,796

Firm 42

450

5,91,49,849

Firm 43

300

10,83,17,956

Firm 44

250

6,09,33,270

## Figure 4

Figure 4 shows the final payment matrix and the possible actions among the houses for the advertizement scheme. As a house 41 I was unaware of what competition house ‘s scheme towards advertizement or promotional activities. I believed that advertizements will non demo impact on gross revenues for excavators industry and decided non to put much on advertizement what so of all time other houses did to derive the immense net incomes.

## Cost-output Relationss:

The cost-output relationship plays a important function in finding the optimal degree of production. Farnham ( 2010 ) states that the relation between cost and production is technically described as the cost map.

TC=f ( Q ) where, TC= Total cost

Q=f ( L, K, M ) Q= Quantity produced.

Harmonizing to Farnham ( 2010 ) based on the period the cost map can be described as,

Short-run cost map

Long-run cost map

## Short-run cost map:

Farnham ( 2010 ) states that short-run is a period during which at least one fixed input in the production map. Table 2 represents the short-term cost end product relation in Chindia excavators industry.

## Table 2

Unit of measurements of Output ( Q )

Entire Fixed Cost ( TFC ) ( \$ )

Entire Variable cost

( TVC ) ( \$ )

Entire Cost

( TFC + TVC ) ( \$ )

Average Variable Cost ( AVC=TVC/Q ) ( \$ )

Average Fixed Cost ( AFC = TFC/Q ) ( \$ )

Average Cost ( AC=AVC +AFC ) ( \$ )

Fringy Cost ( MC ) ( \$ )

0

32,80,000

32,80,000

## –

1

32,80,000

1,00,000

33,80,000

1,00,000

32,80,000

33,80,000

1,00,000

50

32,80,000

50,00,000

82,80,000

1,00,000

65,600

1,65,600

1,00,000

140

32,80,000

1,40,00,000

1,72,80,000

1,00,000

23,428

1,23,428

1,00,000

141

32,80,000

1,42,00,000

1,74,80,000

1,00,709

23,262

1,23,971

2,00,000

160

32,80,000

1,80,00,000

2,12,80,000

1,12,500

20,500

1,33,000

2,00,000

161

32,80,000

1,84,00,000

2,16,80,000

1,14,285

20,372

1,34,657

4,00,000

180

32,80,000

2,60,00,000

2,92,80,000

1,44,444

18,222

1,62,666

4,00,000

181

32,80,000

2,68,00,000

3,00,80,000

1,48,066

18,121

1,66,187

8,00,000

200

32,80,000

4,20,00,000

4,52,80,000

2,10,000

16,400

2,26,400

8,00,000

In Table 2 the TFC includes the fixed labor and fixed capital cost. These fixed costs are independent of end product whose sum can non be altered in the short-run. The AFC falls continuously as the end product additions. As the end product increases the TVC additions, the AVC is changeless first and so increases bit by bit. The variable factors are changeless till the 70 % of the capacity. But one time the 70 % of capacity is reached, any farther addition in end product will increase AVC. The mean entire cost ( AC ) declines foremost and so rises. In the tabular array AVC and AC starts lifting when Q=141. When the rise in AVC is more than the diminution in AFC, the entire cost Begins to lift. In the short-run at that place will non be any alteration in entire fixed cost. Hence alteration in entire cost implies change in entire variable cost merely. MC represents the form of alterations in both TVC and TC as end product alterations. Thus the tabular array 1 exhibits changeless returns in the first case and finally decreasing returns or increasing cost.

Figure 5

Figure 5 shows the relationship between end product and entire fixed cost, entire variable cost and entire cost. The TFC is a horizontal consecutive line stand foring 32, 80,000 \$ whatever be the end product. The TVC curve inclines upward foremost bit by bit but subsequently at a faster rate. As TFC remains changeless TC curve has the same form of behavior as TVC curve.

Figure 6

Figure 6 exhibits the relationship between the end product and AFC, AVC, AC and MC.

The AFC ( i.e. fixed cost per unit ) curve supports on falling with rise in end product. AVC ( i.e. variable cost per unit ) curve foremost maintain changeless and so mount up as end product additions. This is due to the operation of variable proportions. The behavior of AC curve depends upon the behavior of AVC and AFC curves. Initially AVC keeps changeless and AFC continues falling as end product rises. Hence AC besides declines. Later AFC continues to fall with an addition in end product while AVC starts raising up when Q=141 as a consequence AC starts lifting from that point. MC curve comprise the form of alterations in both TVC and TC curve as end product alterations. A changeless tendency in MC curve shows the changeless variable input about 70 % of capacity. Similarly, an upward tendency in MC curve shows the rate of addition in TVC on the one manus and the diminishing fringy productiveness ( i.e. increasing fringy cost ) of the variable input on the other. MC curve intersects both AVC and AC curves at their lowest points.

## Long tally cost map:

Harmonizing to Farnham ( 2010 ) Long-run is a period long plenty to do all inputs variable including the fixed 1s in the short-run. Over a long period, my house has expanded its graduated table of operation by buying new machines.

## Figure 7

Figure 7 exhibits the LAC ( long-term norm cost ) curve for the house 41 in Chindia excavators industry. We have shown the LAC curve with a form of SAC ( short-term norm cost ) curves. The form of these SAC curves illustrated in figure 7 which represents the mean entire cost for house 41 at different sums of fixed inputs in the game. SAC1 refers to the mean cost curve with the initial capacity of the house ( 200 excavators ) . During the early periods of the game I have produced more figure of units than the 70 % of capacity. Hence my cost is more and incurred loss. I have proposed for new machinery in p3 and acquired it in p5 which has increased the capacity to 400 excavators. SAC2 refers the mean cost curve with a capacity of 400 excavators. Again proposed for new machinery in p7 and acquired it in p9 which has increased the capacity of the house to 450 excavators. SAC3 refers the mean cost curve with a capacity of 450 excavators. Later stages I kept my end product under 70 % of the capacity to cut down the input costs and besides able to sold more figure of units than the other houses. Table 3 exhibits the entire units ‘ sold by the houses in Chindia excavators industry at the terminal of the game.

Firm 40

2743

Firm 42

3462

Firm 43

2828

Firm 44

2344

## Elasticity of demand:

Harmonizing to Farnham ( 2010 ) snap of demand speaks of the extent of relationship or the grade of reactivity of demand to the alteration in its assorted determiners like monetary value, publicizing. Based on reactivity of demand it can be described as

Elastic Demand

Inelastic Demand

Unit elastic or unitary elastic Demand.

In the game, monetary value and advertisement are strategic variables on which participants can run. Harmonizing to Farnham ( 2010 ) monetary value fluctuations move along a given demand curve, while a alteration in advertisement outgo shifts the demand curve either upwards or downwards.

In the game we can non cipher the exact figures of monetary value and advertisement snap. It is because in all the periods both monetary value and advertizement values are changing. So, for that affair I have non considered advertisement outgo while calculating monetary value snap and frailty versa.

To cipher the monetary value snap of demand and advertisement snap of demand in Chindia excavators industry I have taken 3 periods based on the growing in the market i.e. p5 ( before roar ) , p9 ( first growing ) and p13 ( 2nd growing ) so compared the alteration in demand with alteration in monetary value with their old periods p4, p8 and p12.

## Price Elasticity of Demand ( eP ) :

Farnham ( 2010 ) stated that the rate at which the demand for a trade good alterations in relation to its alteration in monetary value is known as the monetary value snap of demand.

eP = Percentage alteration in measure demanded

Percentage alteration in monetary value

## Table 4

Average Price for period p4 ( \$ )

Demand in P4

Average Price for period p5 ( \$ )

Demand in P5

Price Elasticity

1,35,700

1027

1,50,600

977

-0.45

Table 4 exhibits that the mean monetary value from p4 to p5 has increased. In reactivity to the alteration in monetary value, the demand decreases, because of the opposite relationship between the monetary value and demand of the trade good. The monetary value snap of the demand is less than one ( vitamin E & A ; lt ; 1 ) in this period ( p4-p5 ) i.e. lessening in measure demanded is less than proportionate addition in monetary value. I can state that the monetary value snap is inelastic during this period ( p4-p5 ) in Chindia Excavators.

## Table 5

Average Price for period p8 ( \$ )

Demand in P8

Average Price for period p9 ( \$ )

Demand in P9

Price Elasticity

2,08,300

1004

1,92,600

1135

-1.73

During this period ( p8-p9 ) there is an economic growing in the market by 2 % , where ab initio in Chindia it was 10 % growing rate. The growing resembles the addition in national end product ( GDP ) . Within the roar the aggregative demand for goods is really high. So, usually houses in the market use the opportunity of a roar to widen their end product and increase net income.

Table 5 shows that the mean monetary value falls from p8 to p9 and the measure demanded additions from 1004 units to 1135 units. The monetary value snap of demand is greater than 1 ( vitamin E & A ; gt ; 1 ) i.e. the addition in demand is more than proportionate autumn in monetary value. In other words the monetary value snap is elastic.

## Table 6

Average Price for period p12

Demand in P12

Average Price for period p13

Demand in P13

Price Elasticity

Supply in P12

Supply in P13

1,73,199

2394

1,71,000

1472

38.5

1245

1309

During this period ( p12-p13 ) there is another economic uptrend in the market by 2 % which leads to the overall growing rate of 14 % . This high economic growing rate causes outward displacement in the aggregative demand.

Table 6 exhibits that the supply is 1245 units in p12 unlike the demand 2394 units. The demand is more than the supply. Harmonizing to Demand pull, rising prices takes topographic point when entire demand is more than entire supply. The mean monetary value is reduced from p12 to p13. Although the monetary value is reduced the measure demanded is besides reduced this unnatural move is because of the demand pull rising prices during the period ( p12-p13 ) .

Farnham ( 2010 ) stated that the reactivity of demand of a good to alter in advertizement disbursals on that good is known as the advertisement snap of demand.

ea = Percentage alteration in measure demanded

## Table 7

Demand in P4

Demand in P5

4,03,100

1027

4,13,100

977

-2

Table 7 shows that the mean advertisement outgo from p4 to p5 is increased. In reactivity to the alteration in advertisement outgo, the demand decreases. The advertisement snap of the demand is greater than one ( vitamin E & A ; gt ; 1 ) during this period ( p4-p5 ) i.e. lessening in measure demanded is more than proportionate addition in advertisement outgo. Or say that the advertizement snap is elastic during this period ( p4-p5 ) .

## Table 8

Demand in P8

Demand in P9

4,31,100

1004

4,90,000

1135

0.93

Table 8 exhibits that the mean advertisement outgo from p8 to p9 is increased. In reactivity to the alteration in advertisement outgo, the demand increases. The advertisement snap of the demand is less than one ( vitamin E & A ; lt ; 1 ) during this period ( p8-p9 ) i.e. addition in measure demanded is less than proportionate lessening in advertisement outgo. Or say that the advertizement snap is inelastic during this period ( p8-p9 ) .

## Table 9

Demand in P12

Demand in P13

4,50,000

2394

4,70,000

1472

-9.5

Table 9 exhibits that the mean advertisement outgo from p12 to p13 is increased. In reactivity to the alteration in advertisement outgo, the demand decreases. The advertisement snap of the demand is greater than one ( vitamin E & A ; gt ; 1 ) during this period ( p12-p13 ) i.e. lessening in measure demanded is more than proportionate addition in advertisement outgo. Or say that the advertizement snap is elastic during this period.

To happen out which strategic variable plays a outstanding function in Chindia excavators towards the alteration in demand I have calculated the average value and the ratio of the both average value ‘s of monetary value snap ‘s.

Mean value of monetary value snap = ( -0.45 ) + ( -1.73 ) + 38.5 = 36.32

Mean value of advertisement snap = ( -2 ) + ( 0.93 ) + ( – 9.5 ) = -10.57

The ratio of 36.32 and 10.57 is 3.44

The size of the mean monetary value snap is about 3.44 times the size of the mean advertisement snap. In other words ‘price ‘ is act uponing demand more than the ‘advertising ‘ in Chindia excavators industry.

As house 41 I have coated lesser monetary value than other houses and sold more figure of units. The low pricing scheme adopted by me has good results.

## Comparing Chinida excavators with Gritain excavators:

Following on, here we compare the developing with the developed economic system i.e. Chindia being the development and Gritain being the developed economic system. To stipulate Gritain has a modest growing rate of 3 % where as Chinida on the other manus has a growing rate of 10 % . And the cost construction for both the industries was similar as per the game regulations. Traveling farther we will besides see how the monetary value and advertisement snap vary in these two industries with similar cost construction but different growing rates.

## Table 10

Gritain Price Elasticity ( p4-p5 )

Chindia Price Elasticity ( p4-p5 )

-1.25

-0.45

-3.125

-2

Table 10 shows that for monetary value there is an elastic demand for excavators in Gritain comparatively to that of Chindia where there is an inelastic demand when there is a normal growing in the market. Unlikely, for advertizement there is an elastic demand in both the states. It says that in normal growing monetary value factor influence demand more in developed economic system than the developing economic system.

## Table 11

Gritain Price Elasticity ( p8-p9 )

Chindia monetary value snap ( p8-p9 )

-0.70

-1.73

0.4

0.93

During this period ( p8-p9 ) there is growing rate of 2 % in both the markets. Table 11 exhibits that for monetary value there is an elastic demand in Chindia relatively in Gritain there is inelastic demand. Improbable, for advertizement there is an inelastic demand in both the states.

## Table 12

Gritain Price Elasticity ( p12-13 )

Chindia monetary value snap ( p12-p13 )

-9.13

38.5

Eternity

-9.5

During this period ( p12-p13 ) there is a farther growing of 2 % in both the states. This high growing in the market creates demand pull rising prices in both the states. As a consequence there is an unnatural snap ‘s.

## Comparing Chindia Excavators with Chindia Moisturising pick:

Below is the comparing between two industries in Chindia. The two industries have different cost constructions. Chindia Moisturising pick has a changeless variable and fringy cost where as for Chindia excavators industry ‘s fringy cost additions from 70 % of the capacity of the house. The growing rate is similar for both the states. Further we will see how the monetary value and advisement snap ‘s vary among these industries.

## Table 13

Chindia Excavators Price Elasticity ( p4-p5 )

Chindia Moisturising pick Price Elasticity ( p4-p5 )

-0.45

4

-2

0.42

Table 13 shows that for monetary value there is an inelastic demand for excavators industry comparatively in humidifying pick industry there is an elastic demand when there is a normal growing in the market. Unlikely, for advertizement there is an elastic demand in excavators industry relatively in humidifying pick industry there is an inelastic demand.

From this we can state in the normal growing conditions monetary value is act uponing demand more in humidifying pick industry than the excavators industry. On the other manus advertizement is act uponing more in excavators industry than the moisturising pick industry.

## Table 14

Chindia Excavators Price Elasticity ( p8-p9 )

Chindia Moisturising pick Price Elasticity ( p8-p9 )

-1.73

0.75

0.93

2.35

Table 14 exhibits that for monetary value there is an elastic demand for excavators industry relatively in humidifying pick industry there is an inelastic demand when there is a growing in the market. Unlikely, for advertizement there is an inelastic demand for excavators industry comparatively in humidifying pick industry there is an elastic demand.

From this we can state in roar conditions monetary value is act uponing demand more in excavators industry than the moisturising pick industry. On the other manus advertizement is act uponing more in humidifying pick industry than the excavators industry.

## Table 15

Chindia Excavators Price Elasticity ( p12-p13 )

Chindia Moisturising pick Price Elasticity ( p12-p13 )