The economy and mining industry of mongolia

Introduction to Mongolia ‘s Economy

Mongolian economic system has traditionally been centered two chief sectors which are agribusiness and excavation like most developing states.

The Agricultural Sector

By and large Mongolian agribusiness has been easy developed. Agriculture is based on about 30 eight per centum of Mongolian economic system, and besides it is one of the chief Mongolian cultural parts. Ninety-five per centum of Mongolian lands are used for grazing land land. Mongolian people in countryside are mobile Herders which mean they follow their farm animal grazing land land. Agriculture is practiced to a limited infinite in Mongolia, concentrating by and large on wheat and murphies, and drinks. Actually before agribusiness was a smaller than presents, but critical sector of the Mongolian economic system in the early 1980 ‘s. In 1985, agribusiness accounted for over 17.4 per centum of national income, and 27.6 per centum of the labour force. However, agribusiness stayed economically of import portion, because the most of Mongolian industry processed agricultural merchandises, nutrient, and animate being merchandises, including fells and teguments for export. In 1986, agribusiness supplied over 57 per centum of Mongolian exports. Agricultural sector depends on the conditions conditions. For the winter, Mongolian clime has a big temperature scope reached minus 30 grades Celsius, and summer temperatures thirty two grades Celsius. In the summer clip, it has become drought recently, and brought on the deficiency of grazing land lands, and in the winter, brought on immense sums of snow that resulted in the decease of many million farm animal.


In my sentiment, with the intent of addition productiveness by husbandmans and herder, and the best thing that we can make is to make benefit policies which are a markets organisation for their merchandises, and besides giving them who are husbandmans and herdsman benefits include wellness insurance, life insurance, a dental program and any price reduction that something needed for their life. Performing increased productively is easy, the authorities merely can give the Herders and husbandmans more farm animal, and they have experiences of tradition cognition what to make with it. And besides a current issue of major importance in the agricultural sector of Herders and husbandmans direction: The demand to use progresss in Information Technology to better their direction. The Governments and some companies could back up merchandising with the official economic system. Possibly, if the people implicated in the hapless economic system expression at that the official economic system is doing good, they will alter about. The terminal of this non moving officially economic system in Mongolia, it would convey so much unobserved income of the authorities to the official economic system. As though this thing is traveling on in Mongolia, Mongolians normally work difficult to do better life. They do non hold adequate money disbursement for the nutrient, apparels, rent, and some staffs, and clime in Mongolia is really difficult, but Mongolians are strong people.


The Mining Sector

The Mining sector is one of the biggest sectors to economic system in Mongolia. For last five old ages, Mining sector in Mongolia has been go toing profoundly in the universe. Mongolia is rich for the mineral resources and development to its economic system, so Mongolia is sing a deep in its excavation sector, which brings new chances every bit good as major challenges. The Mining is go oning to lift as a major industry of Mongolia as supported by the figure of Chinese, Russian and Canadian companies, which are get downing excavation concerns in Mongolia. By the late 1980 ‘s, excavation was an of import sector of the economic system, and accounted for 42.6 % of exports in 1985. As the universe searches for natural resources, the focal point centres on Mongolia, because Mongolia has known sedimentations of over 80 types of minerals, and presently produces about 90 minerals including Ag, Cu, gold, and coal. Mongolia is a major exporter of Cu and coal every bit good as a prima universe manufacturer. Until the late 1960 ‘s, excavation in Mongolia consisted largely of coal.


Map of the Mongolian excavation sectors:

Square Line: Mineral ‘s Fieldss

Triangle Line: Mines


The importance of excavation is decidedly important to Mongolia. Mining is an of import industry, and Mongolians are really advanced in their excavation engineering, but during the excavation procedure, there is a certain degree of pollution produced. The Mongolian authorities and the excavation companies have really good programs and controls toward this job, while guaranting the smooth running of the industry, and which besides helps to make strong economic system and employment. The universe of today could non be without mineral merchandises. Mongolia produces about 60 minerals and ranks foremost among bring forthing states. Equally good, Mongolia is one of the largest exporters of minerals, with more than 20 % of its production shipped to universe markets. In a typical twelvemonth, the excavation industry is responsible for about 20 % of Mongolia ‘s entire export net incomes. As for the employment rate, over 5 % of the mines are owned by Mongolians and about 32,000 Mongolians are straight employed in the excavation industry, but there are some issues with employees who are working in Mining Sector including productiveness, preparation, and diverseness etc. Productivity is a common battle for most excavation sector because of some Mongolian people who do non work good, and merely taking their clip. That is why in the workplace, the foreign companies prefer their ain employees who can invariably do certain that they are acquiring plenty of the needful sorts of work completed so that the concern is running expeditiously in order to be profitable. If the company has employees who are non drawing their weight, it decreases productiveness that can diminish profitableness.


Training is a necessary constituent of employee development, and preparation is needed in virtually every concern and industry every bit good. Some preparation is on the occupation, while other types may affect the company directing employees for outside preparation paid for by the concern. At the minute, fundamentally companies require people who are profoundly trained in the excavation sector. Mongolian people are merely practising in the excavation sector, and they do non hold adequate experience with it. ( Diversity ) Recently, sometimes the foreign employers and Mongolian employers discriminate to each other in the workplace. Actually, they must adhere to engaging, publicity and expiration patterns that do n’t know apart against people of different races, ages or sexual orientations. Laws are clear that workplace favoritism wo n’t be tolerated. The excavation sector plays the chief function in the industrial development of the state. From the statistics, for the past decennary, the Mongolian excavation industry has been come oning by 4 % every twelvemonth. Mining is really of import in Mongolian life. Not merely do the merchandises power the household auto and heat the household place, the fabrication sector, the high tech industries and even the better known resource industries are all dependent, in some manner, on the excavation industry. The excavation industry will go on to be an of import support to the economic system. If the excavation sector develops in the right manner, this would hold a positive impact on the development of the Mongolian economic system. If excavation develops the incorrect manner, it will convey prostration to the ecological and natural systems of the state. If the excavation sector develops in the right manner, I hope this sector will be running swimmingly and conveying in money to make a good economic hereafter.


Failings and Strengths ( harmonizing to National Development Strategy )


Small internal market

Landlocked state

Importing state

High cost for the theodolite and conveyance

Dependence of the agricultural sector on conditions conditions


Amply supplied mineral resources

Bettering macroeconomic index


Since the economic reform of the 1990s, the Mongolian Government has bit by bit privatized the excavation sector. Mineral geographic expedition was hampered by limited substructure, such as a deficit of roads and H2O resources, and terrible conditions in Mongolia. During the past several old ages, nevertheless, economic and governmental reforms have led to increased foreign investing in mineral geographic expedition. Mining opens chances for formal and informal employment for many people, particularly in agricultural sector. Mongolians have presently opened at their historic minute which has waited for a long clip Oyu Tolgoi ‘s ( Canadian and Mongolian Co-Mining Company ) Investment Agreement, anticipating that this understanding will hold a strongly effectual on all facets of the Mongolian economic system. It means which is guaranteed by the Mongolian Government to direct an highly signal to investors who are puting for Mongolia that the state is now unfastened for anyone who wants to enterprise. The Economy of Mongolia looks bright, and we are merely get downing a new chapter in their history, I merely hope that Mongolian economic will do the right reforms for its economical growing to do certain the issues of Oyu Tolgoi ‘s ( Canadian and Mongolian Co-Mining Company ) Investment Agreement continues to maintain doing the late chances.



J M Court, Personal Data Protection, The 1984 Act and its deduction, 1st edition, 1984

Bainbridge D, Data Protection Law, 2000

hypertext transfer protocol: //

notes from Ms. Alison Hough talks

Naomi Feinstein, Susan Henderson, Data Protection in Employment, 2004

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //