The aggregate import demand function

Hypothesis: In this study purpose to analyze the aggregative import demand map for India based on one-year informations from 1970-2000. Furthermore, I intend to detect the reaction of existent imports with regard to existent GDP and comparative monetary values. In order to transport out this analysis in an effectual and professional mode I shall be utilizing the Eviews statistical programme, for the intent of doing appraisals, proving and supplying accounts. Furthermore, I will be utilizing the Johansen and Juselious multivariate cointegration method and so a Vector Auto Regressive theoretical account ( VAR ) to run the e-econometric modeling for this study. Further treatment and logical thinking has been given for the pick of utilizing these two techniques.

Literature Reappraisal:

Over the past 20 old ages trade has played a important function in growing of the Indian economic system. A research by ( Sinha 1996 ) who besides studied the aggregative imports during 1960-1992 found no relationship empirical grounds of cointegration amongst the variables used in the import demand map. This could hold been possible, since the clip period they studied was an epoch where big graduated table industries were still mostly operated by the Indian authorities and imports were to a great extent controlled whereas exports we subsidised ( Siddiki and Daly 1999 ) . On the other manus, ( Dash 2005 ) carried out an analysis of the import demand map for India for the periods 1975-2003 and found cointegration between all the variables they studied.

A survey conducted by ( Goldstein and khan 1985 ) , suggested that trade relationships were capable to either sudden or gradual fluctuations over clip. With context to merchandise in India, one could detect these gradual alterations when trade barriers on capital were removed and the quantitative limitations abolished during the trade liberalization period, ( Hecklinger, R 2004 ) . On the other manus, sudden alterations occur as a effect of flcutations in the exchange rate or an unforeseeable event like war or natural catastrophes, which necessarily affect the economic system. A existent life illustration of this could be the when India experienced oil monetary value dazes and draft which occurred in the 1990s ( Dash 2005 ) .

Harmonizing to ( Seddighi, Lawler and Katos 2000 ) an addition in the Relative Price degrees is by and large expected to take to a autumn in demand for imports. This may happen as a consequence of a rise in the monetary value of foreign import goods and services, therefore place consumers may prefer to buy domestically produced goods available at a lower monetary value. Furthermore, depreciation in the exchange rate can besides take to a autumn in imports, as it may non be executable to import goods.

On the contrary, imports have mostly been encouraged within the Indian economic system for several grounds. As discussed ( Shamsavari, A 2007 ) [ 1 ] the economic construction of developing state like India pre-1980s proved to be an obstruction to imports and hampered opportunities for growing, since there was a grade of ‘home prejudice ‘ .

Liberalization of trade in India:

Pre 1991 India operated in a closed economic system, and imports of certain goods were restricted. After the liberalization of markets post 1991, the barriers to external trade were removed this provided a platform for more imports and exports of goods and services into the host state. Rivals from all over the universe entered the Indian markets, which lead to an addition in competition within industries. Furthermore, denationalization reduced the function of the Indian authorities and public sector in the concern environment. In add-on, the remotion of all limitations on imports ( Trade policy reappraisal, 2002 ) [ 2 ] , helped profit the authorities in its balance of payments ( BoF ) . As mentioned by ( Rana, 1997 ) , the undermentioned import policy reforms were introduced by the Indian authorities: ( 1 ) licensing on imports has been mostly eradicated, with the exclusion of a few goods, ( 2 ) Quantitative limitations on imports were replaced by duties, ( 3 ) between 1991-95 the duty rate was dropped from 400 per cent to 50 per cent and responsibility on goods had been reduced from 50 per cent to 27 per centum. In add-on, ( Ghatak and Utkulu 1995 ) identify that trade policies implemented in India affect short-term and long-term end product growing rate.

Econometric Modeling: Cointegration and VAR modeling:

The chief indexs to be used in this study consist of a dependent variable and three independent variables based on India, these are: Real Imports ( RIMPORTS ) ; Real GDP ( RGDP ) + Relative Monetary values ( LRP ) . Therefore the equation of aggregative import demand map for India can be depicted as:

LRIMPORTSt = ?a‚ˆ + ?a‚?LRGDPt + ?a‚‚LRPt + N”

LRIMPORTS T = is the log of Real imports calculated for the period 1970-2000 ( T ) .

?a‚ˆ = is a changeless

LRGDPt = the log of Real Gross Domestic Product calculated at 1990 monetary values.

LRPt = the log of Relative Monetary values for the period 1970-2000 ( T ) .

?„ = represents the error term.

Using the Eviews programme we foremost create logs for each of the variables in the import demand map theoretical account. The logarithms are used for the informations sets for each variable in order to capture the gradual altering consequence of clip series informations, therefore the information is represented with the logarithm mark L in the equation above.

Beginning: IMF World Data Statisticss, for India 1970-2000:

Having completed the log for all the variables, we so run the Augmented Dickey-Fuller trial to look into for unit-roots amongst the information series for each of the variables. Unit-root trials are used to look into if the information is stationary and to detect whether there is any order of cointgration between the informations or if the figures used in the variables are specious. The order of integrating term refers to the figure of times that a series needs to be differenced in order for is to be stationary. Therefore, if the series has an integrated of order one I ( 1 ) indicate that the Yt is stationary at the first difference, see ( Appendix A, Table 1.0 ) . Furthermore, the series can be stationary at the degrees I ( 0 ) or even at the 2nd difference I ( 2 ) .

Based on the consequences derived from the ADF trials, we observe at I ( 0 ) degrees are non stationary. Hence, at I ( 1 ) all the variables are cointegrated and the information is stationary, in add-on we reject the nothing. The r-squared values represented on the ADF theoretical account, provide an account for the behavior of the independent variables in comparing to the dependant variable, if the figures are close to 1 implies a good degree of assurance within the information. The information tabular arraies show R-squared values of 0.546392 for the unit root trial. The P-values shows the assurance of the coefficient value. In add-on the F-statistic indicates the grade that the appraisals sing the variables are close to world.

After making an equation from all the variables integrated at I ( 1 ) we make a residuary series from the equation, this gives us ‘RESID01 ‘ ( Appendix A, Table 1.0 ) . We so use an ADF unit root trial to the series as illustrated above, and we achieve stationary informations at I ( 1 ) . This implies that there are no unit roots and the information is conintegrated. The residuary, shows us whether the information is stationary.

Having carried out ADF trials on the first derived functions of the variables and on the residuary, we discovered that all variables are integrated at order I ( 1 ) and their informations is stationary. We can now use the Johansen and Juselious multivariate cointegration technique in order to prove for the relationships between variables ( Appendix A, Table 1.1 ) . Furthermore, an advantage of utilizing this technique is that it accounts for multiple cointegration relationships between several sets of informations, ( Dash 2005 ) .

This subdivision of the study looks at the Vector Auto Regression theoretical account ( VAR ) in order to mensurate the truth of our appraisal. The consequence of the VAR theoretical account is presented.In add-on we test for the Vector Error rectification, in order to see how precise the hypothesis will be.


In this study I investigated the aggregative import demand map for India during 1970-2000, utilizing the Johansen Cointegration trial and the Vector Auto Regression theoretical account to prove for Vector Errors. The overall decision to this study shows us that the RealGDP and Relative Prices independent variables are cointegrated with the dependent variable Real Imports. Despite the fact that the figures for the appraisal of the variables are negative, the integrating can still be explained with context to the aggregative import demand map. For illustration, ( Cypher and Dietz 1997 ) discourse the advantages of current history shortage offset by imports transcending exports in the short-run. One of the chief advantages of meeting this shortage is that, India can profit from importing intermediate goods necessary for promoting economic sciences growing and in bend aid hike exports. In add-on, additions in existent imports will finally intend that Real GDP and Relative Prices will be negative ; nevertheless the intent of this action is to accomplish greater domestic production and other economic variables as discussed by ( Shamsavari, A 2007 ) . Furthermore, the clip period chosen for the analysis could besides explicate why the values of the variables are comparatively negative. ( Siddiki and Daly 1999 ) , look at the ‘official depreciation ‘ of the currency in 1973 which resulted in an reverse trade shortages and a diminution in trade. However, I remain confident that the theory made by ( Cypher and Dietz 1997 ) was in existent fact what the Indian economic system was seeking to accomplish during 1970-2000.



Ghatak, S. and Utkulu, Utku ( 1997 ) Trade Liberalisation and Endogenous Growth: The experience of Some Asiatic Countires in V.N. Bala Subramonyam and David Greenway ( explosive detection systems ) .

James M. Cypher and James L. Dietz ( 1997 ) , The Process of Economic Development, Routledge Publications.

Seddighi, Lawler and Katos ( 2000 ) , Econometrics A Practical Approach, Routledge Publications.

Shamsavari, A. , ( 2007 ) Transnational Corporations in World.


Aruna Kumar Dash ( 2005 ) , “ An Econometric Appraisal of the Aggregate Import Demand Function for India ” , IBRC Athens, Aryan Hellas ltd.

Goldstein, M. and M. S. Khan ( 1985 ) , “ Income and Price Effectss in Foreign Trade, ”

R. W. Jones and P. B. Kenen ( explosive detection systems. ) Handbook of International Economics ( Vol. II ) , New York: Elsevier Science Publications, 1041-1105.

Rana, P. B. ( 1997 ) , “ Reforms in Bangladesh: A Comparative Appraisal in Relation to Other South Asiatic Countries, ” in M. G. Quibria ( ed. ) The Bangladesh Economy in Transition, Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Sinha, D. ( 1996 ) , “ An Aggregate Import Demand Function for India, ” Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Economiche vitamin E Commerciali, 43: 163-173.

Web sites:

Hecklinger, R. ( 2004 ) OPPERTUNITIES AND INVESTMENT CHALLENGES FOR INVESTMENT IN INDIA, OECD-India Investment Roundtable [ Online ] . Available at[ Accessed on 3rd November 2008 ] .

World Trade Organisation. ( 2002 ) Trade Policy Review – India 2002, Government Report [ Online ] . Available at[ Accessed on 3rd November 2008 ] .


Retrieved from: IMF World Data Statisticss, for India 1970-2000. [ ONLINE ] [ Accessed on 3rd November 2008 ] .

  1. Shamsavari, A. , ( 2007 ) Transnational Corporations in World. Chapter 10.
  2. World Trade Organisation, ( 2002 ) Trade Policy Review India.
  3. Seddighi, Lawler and Katos ( 2000 ) , Econometrics A Practical Approach, page 246.