Technological Environment Of Turkey Economics Essay

The field of direction requires practical cognition in add-on to the theoretical cognition gained in the schoolroom this study has been prepaid in conformity with the guideline of Patel group of establishment of for MBA course of study. We are analyzing in the 3rd semester of MBA programmed during this twelvemonth.

We are completed our Global/Country undertaking study on Technological Environment ” on Turkey have been prepared by our ideas, thoughts and an experience.

I have tried to seek to include all the of import information in present study

Recognition

The work presented here is non a individual attempt as each and every individual associated with this undertaking has contributed in the successful achievement of this piece of work and is being thanked for their attempts.

We are grateful to Prof. bhavna bosamiafor helping us in every manner to fix this study. They shared with us their valuable cognition and guided us from clip to clip in order to better our undertaking.

Without their cooperation we would non hold been able to acquire their valuable responses and therefore would non hold been able to finish the undertaking.

Table of content

Sr. No.

Particular

Page No.

Title Page

Foreword

I

Recognition

two

Executive sum-up

three

Ch.-1.

About the Meleagris gallopavo

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Demographic profile of the state

1.3

Geographical profile of the state

1.3.1

Map of the state

1.4

Economic overview of the state

Ch.-2

Technological environment of Turkey

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Economy and engineering in Turkey

2.3

Environmental engineerings

2.4

Renewable energies and energy efficiency

2.5

Waste direction

2.6

Water direction

2.7

Air protection

2.8

Conveyance

Degree centigrades: UsersGlobalDesktopTurkey-Flag-icon.png

About the Turkey

1.1 Introduction

Overview on TurkeyModern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian leftovers of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was subsequently honored with the rubric Ataturk or “ Father of the Turks. ” Under his leading, the state adopted wide-ranging societal, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party regulation, an experiment with multi-party political relations led to the 1950 election triumph of the resistance Democratic Party and the peaceable transportation of power. Since so, Turkish political parties have multiplied. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decennary, it has undertaken many reforms to beef up its democracy and economic system ; it began accession rank negotiations with the European Union in 2005.

Turkey ‘s place and function in the universe has become a more polar one. Its geographical place, wedged between the European land mass, Russia and the Middle East, has given it a new strategic importance.

Turkey has an particularly important topographic point in the Muslim universe. Thankss to the bequest of Ataturk, it is a rare illustration among Muslim states of a operation secular democracy. Compared with much of the Arab universe, it has been enormously successful in economic, diplomatic and military footings.

Turkey has besides made the most of being an energy corridor between E and West. A decennary of confrontation over oil and, particularly, gas between Russia and the West has enabled Turkey to move as a buffer. Oil and gas grapevines already snake across Turkey from Azerbaijan via Georgia. The Turks have besides signed up to the ambitious Nabucco gas-pipeline undertaking, which is intended to short-circuit Russia. Oil began to flux through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan grapevine in May 2006, taging a major milepost that will convey up to 1 million barrels per twenty-four hours from the Caspian to market. Several gas grapevines besides are being planned to assist travel Central Asian gas to Europe

Via Turkey, which will assist turn to Turkey ‘s dependance on energy imports over the long term?

Mr. Dervis, a World Bank economic expert became Turkey ‘s finance curate in March 2001. He was responsible for inventing and following fiscal and financial reforms as portion of an IMF plan which provided a new model for Turkish pecuniary and financial policy, which has stood the state in good position. The economic system suffered severely in the planetary recession of 2009, but over the old five old ages it had been vigorous, and it bounced back so rapidly that in 2011, it is likely to turn faster than those of about all other European states. Turkey experienced GDP growing of 8.9 % in 2010, the fastest of all OECD economic systems. It was the universe ‘s fastest turning economic system in the first one-fourth of 2011.

The reforms strengthened the state ‘s economic basicss and ushered in an epoch of strong growing – averaging more than 6 per cent yearly until 2009, when planetary economic conditions and tighter financial policy slowed growing to 4.7 per cent, reduced rising prices to 6.5 per cent – a 34-year low – and cut the public sector debt-to-GPD ratio below 50 per cent. Turkey ‘s well-regulated fiscal markets and banking system weathered the planetary fiscal crisis and GDP rebounded strongly to 7.3 per cent in 2010, as exports returned to normal degrees following the recession. It is on the brink of geting an investment-grade recognition evaluation ; rising prices is in individual figures.

In the 1990s foreign direct investing was running at less than $ 1 billion a twelvemonth, but ten old ages subsequently, before the GFC briefly sent it back down once more, it was closer to $ 20 billion. The Bankss have been transformed and the state has a strong fiscal sector.

In the 1990s Turkey ‘s GDP grew by an one-year norm of merely 4 per cent. In 2002-08 that rose to an norm of about 6 per cent before the recession hit in 2009. Inflation, running at an norm of 75 per cent a twelvemonth in the 1990s, is down to 9 per cent in 2010. The public debt is back below50 per cent of GDP.

The OECD published a study on the Turkish economic system in September 2010, which pointed out that Turkey would be the organisation ‘s fastest-growing member in 2010/11 and likened its public presentation to that of the emerging-market BRICs. There are marks that over the following seven old ages Turkey ‘s growing will fit or transcend that of any other large state except China and India.

Turkey ‘s economic system is progressively driven by its industry and service sectors, although its traditional agribusiness sector still accounts for about 30 per cent of employment. An aggressive denationalization plan has reduced province engagement in basic industry, banking, conveyance, and communicating, and an emerging cell of middle-class enterprisers is adding a dynamism to the economic system.

Turkey ‘s traditional fabrics and vesture vesture sectors still account for tierce of industrial employment, despite stiff competition in international markets that resulted from the terminal of the planetary quota system.

1.2 Demographic profile of the state

Population

79,749,461 ( July 2011 est. )

Age construction

0-14 old ages: A 26.6 % ( male 10,707,793/female 10,226,999 ) A

15-64 old ages: A 67.1 % ( male 26,741,332/female 26,162,757 ) A

65 old ages and over: A 6.3 % ( male 2,259,422/female 2,687,245 ) ( 2011 est. )

Median age

entire: A 28.5 yearsA

male: A 28.1 yearsA

female: A 28.8 old ages ( 2011 est. )

Population growing rate

1.197 % ( 2011 est. )

Birth rate

17.58 births/1,000 population ( 2011 est. )

Death rate

6.1 deaths/1,000 population ( July 2011 est. )

Net migration rate

0.5 migrator ( s ) /1,000 population ( 2011 est. )

Major metropoliss – population

Istanbul 10.378 million ; ANKARA ( capital ) 3.846 million ; Izmir 2.679 million ; Bursa 1.559 million ; Adana 1.339 million ( 2009 )

Sexual activity ratio

at birth: A 1.05 male ( s ) /femaleA

under 15 old ages: A 1.05 male ( s ) /femaleA

15-64 old ages: A 1.02 male ( s ) /femaleA

65 old ages and over: A 0.84 male ( s ) /femaleA

entire population: A 1.02 male ( s ) /female ( 2011 est. )

Infant mortality rate

entire: A 23.07 deaths/1,000 unrecorded birthsA

male: A 24.13 deaths/1,000 unrecorded birthsA

female: A 21.96 deaths/1,000 unrecorded births ( 2011 est. )

Life anticipation at birth

entire population: A 72.77 yearsA

male: A 70.86 yearsA

female: A 74.78 old ages ( 2011 est. )

Entire birthrate rate

2.13 kids born/woman ( 2011 est. )

Nationality

noun: A Turk ( s ) A

adjectival: A Turkish

Cultural groups

Turkish 70-75 % , Kurdish 18 % , other minorities 7-12 % ( 2008 est. )

Religions

Muslim 99.8 % ( largely Sunni ) , other 0.2 % ( largely Christians and Jews )

Languages

Turkish ( functionary ) , Kurdish, other minority linguistic communications

Literacy

definition: A age 15 and over can read and writeA

entire population: A 87.4 % A

male: A 95.3 % A

female: A 79.6 % ( 2004 est. )

School life anticipation ( primary to third instruction )

entire: A 12 yearsA

male: A 12 yearsA

female: A 11 old ages ( 2008 )

Education outgos

2.9 % of GDP ( 2006 )

Maternal mortality rate

23 deaths/100,000 unrecorded births ( 2008 )

Children under the age of 5 old ages scraggy

3.5 % ( 2004 )

1.3 Geographical profile of the state

Map of the state

Degree centigrades: UsersGlobalDesktopmap-turkey-360×270-cb1351015251.gif

Official name – Republic of Turkey

Capital City – Turkish capital

GDP – buying power para $ 906.5 billion*

GDP Per Capita – buying power para $ 12,000*

Location:

South eastern Europe and south western Asia, surrounding the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and surrounding the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria.

Geographic co-ordinates: ( 39 00 N, 35 00 Tocopherol )

Area: Sum: 780,580 sq kilometer, land: 770,760 sq kilometer, H2O: 9,820 sq kilometer

Land boundaries:

Entire: 2,627km, boundary line states: Armenia 268km, Azerbaijan 9km, Bulgaria 240km, Georgia252km, Greece206km, Iran499km, Iraq331km, Syria822km

Coastline: ( 8,333km )

Climate:

Temperate ; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters ; harsher in inside

Terrain:

Largely mountains ; narrow coastal field ; high cardinal tableland ( Anatolia )

Elevation extremes:

Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m, highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166m

Natural resources: A

Antimony, coal, Cr, quicksilver, Cu, borate, sulfur, Fe ore

Land usage:

Arable land: 32 % , lasting harvests: 4 % , lasting grazing lands: 16 % , woods and forest: 26 % , other: 22 % ( 1993 EST. )

Irrigated land: ( 36,740 sq kilometer )

Natural jeopardies: Severe temblors, particularly in northern Turkey

1.4 Economic overview of the company

The Turkish economic system is dynamic and turning. It is a blend of traditional agribusiness, modern industry and commercialism. One-third of those employed in industry work in fabrics. However, fabrics are non the chief export. This sector has been overtaken by the quickly turning automotive and electronic industries. Turkey besides has an rousing scientific discipline and invention sector, though it lags behind most OECD states in this country. With rapid growing rates and a immature and increasing population of over 70 million, Turkey has the possible to be the largest economic system in Europe after Germany and the most thickly settled if it should be accepted into the EU. Turkey is now a member in the G20 nine of of import economic systems, and it is about on par with the emerging giants of the BRIC nine. Some prognosiss even suggest that during the following decennary Turkey will turn faster than any other state besides India or China.

Economic growing in Turkey has confronted many obstructions over the past decennaries. Historically since the 1950s, the state has suffered serious break to its economic system about every 10 old ages. In 1994due to excessive public disbursement and impairment of macro-economic basicss, the state ‘s economic system faced one of its worst recessions up to that clip, conveying an terminal to 13 consecutive 3 old ages of growing. However, the economic system bounced back strongly over the following 3 old ages, turning by over 8 per centum ( OECD, 2010 fact book ) . In 1998, lag returned as a consequence of the Asian and Russian fiscal crises.

In 1999, two black temblors, mensurating 7.4 and 7.2 on the Richter graduated table, hit northwesterly Turkey right in the center of its industrial heartland, doing Turkey to endure its worst contraction in several decennaries. Ten old ages ago Turkey ‘s economic system was one time once more in convulsion. Inflation was highly high and its Bankss were on the brink of prostration. By the 2000-1 settlement crises, the state ‘s currency collapsed, the Bankss had to be rescued, public debt amounted to 74 % of GDP IMF, World Economic Outlook Database ) , and for the 18th clip, the IMF was asked for aid.

Since so, Turkey ‘s economic system has entered an epoch of high growing and structural reform. A comprehensive reform plan, which encompassed an exchange float rate, financial-sector supervising and denationalization, led to important economic growing with an one-year GDP growing rate of 6.8 % between 2002-2008, compared to an one-year norm of 4 % in the 1990s. The private sector grew well in recent old ages, but the authorities still plays an of import function in taking industries such as banking, conveyance and communications. The rising prices rate fell to historic depressions, making 6.4 % in the past twelvemonth compared to 75 % in the 1990s ( Turkish Statistical Institute, “ Turkstat ” ) . Significant betterment in budget direction was introduced, and authorities debt declined significantly from 76 % of GDP in 2001 to about 35 % in the 2nd one-fourth of 2010

Turkey ‘s political sphere

The political state of affairs has improved every bit good. Turkey ‘s political relations used to be unstable and extremely volatile. Parties would organize and rapidly vanish, politicians would suddenly be banned, and several times the ground forces interfered and removed the regnant authorities. However, all this changed after the election of November 2002, when the individual party authorities, led by the mildly Islamist Justice and Development ( AK ) party of Mr. Erdogan ‘s, was formed. It has been in power of all time since. After over eight old ages of regulation by Mr. Erdogan ‘s AK party, an array of impressive political and economic reforms was implemented. In add-on, last September, Mr. Erdogan won an of import referendum enabling him to increase authorities control over the ground forces and judiciary system. The portion that Turkey ‘s political stableness dramas in Turkey ‘s overall market betterment is unquestionable. Yet, the consequences of the September referendum have revealed that the state remains profoundly divided. Mr. Erdogan has besides proved extremely partizan and intolerant of unfavorable judgment. Freedom of the imperativeness in the past old ages is no longer taken for granted. This was evident in the authorities ‘s handling of the state ‘s biggest media group, known as Dogan. After a few unfavourable articles, the media group found itself the object of remarkably vigorous revenue enhancement reviews, reminiscent of Russia ‘s intervention of the Yukuse oil company. Since so, journalists realize that it is unwise to knock the AK party. In its 2009 advancement study, the European Commission reprimanded the authorities over this episode. .

Turkey has traditional strong ties to the Arab and Muslim universe which have been turning stronger under the leading of the current authorities. These ties relate to domestic issues, for case, the remotion of the prohibition on have oning a head covering in province establishments and universities, and to foreign issues such as the deteriorating dealingss with Israel. Turkey, which was mostly ignored for many old ages, now has a stronger presence in the part, which has proven advantageous to economic growing. Traditionally Turkey has relied chiefly on exports to the West, particularly Germany and the remainder of Europe. But although the EU is still Turkey ‘s biggest market, its portion is falling, and exports to the Middle East and Iran increased significantly. This has given Turkey entree to more diversified markets and lowered Turkey ‘s dependance on the economic recovery in Europe.

Turkey and the planetary fiscal crises

Turkey ‘s economic system was hit by the recent planetary fiscal crises largely through trade channels, puting back trade with Turkey ‘s chief trading spouses in the European Union, and it resulted in a crisp autumn in exports. Although capital influxs contracted, and private investing and the consuming of lasting goods declined, there was no cardinal harm to Turkey ‘s economic system. Due to the reforms in the Turkish fiscal sector and tighter ordinance, Turkey ‘s economic system recovered fleetly, and growing in 2010 was estimated at over 8 % ( IMF ) , largely attributed to turning domestic demand. Inflation was merely below the 2010 mark, and capital influxs intensified driven by broad involvement rate spreads and increased political certainty. In the 1990 ‘s, foreign direct investing was running at less than 1 $ B a twelvemonth but by 2007 foreign direct investing reached an all-time high of 22 $ B. However, the high degrees of FDI have declined and amounted to less than 9B in the past twelvemonth ( OECD ) . A important rise in FDI in the close hereafter is non likely as more than 80 % of FDI comes from European states. Whereas FDI has declined, other yet more volatile 6investments ( portfolio investings and debt securities investings ) have risen due to low CDS spread. In the Istanbul stock exchange more than two-thirds of the stocks on are now owned by foreign investors. Although this is a mark of planetary assurance in Turkey ‘s unfastened markets, it besides raises the chance that foreign money is fueling an investing bubble that could stop severely if aliens exit the market every bit rapidly as they entered.

Technological environment of Turkey

2.1 Introduction

Since 2005 Turkey has been in a dialogue procedure with the European Union and within the state there is a high involvement to submit to the European Union severally to progress the cooperation with the EU. A farther attack of Turkey to the EU will besides implicate an increased execution of EU environmental proficient criterions ensuing in a corresponding demand on environmental engineerings. Irrespective of an accession to the EU, Turkey as a threshold state is confronted with a scope of environmental subjects being put on the topographic point in the coming old ages. This concerns above all the building of new power works capacities, raising energy and trade good monetary values, the protection of drinkable H2O resources every bit good as safeguarding the quality of the bathing H2O and an attractive landscape for touristry.

The state has a population of 74 million, features a stable economic growing and therefore represents an tremendous market for Austrian environmental engineering. Beyond it, due to the in-migration of Turkish foreign workers to Austria in the sixtiess and 1970s, there are intensive

economic and cultural relationships between Austria and Turkey. The bing bilingualism of many Austrians with Turkish migration background creates first-class conditions in order to get the better of cultural and linguistic barriers when transporting out environmental engineering undertakings in Turkey. At disposal degree a co-operation already exists between Austria and Turkey in footings of an EU-twinning undertaking in which the Federal Environmental Agency every bit good as the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management are involved.

The purpose of this survey is a better appraisal of the potency of this market for Austrian companies by showing a elaborate analysis of national environmental policies every bit good as of the corresponding volumes of investing. Small and medium endeavors frequently do non dispose of the agencies for an on-going market observation therefore this survey can be regarded as a usher and aid when measuring the hereafter market development in the environmental sector.

Due to the graduated table of the capable country – get downing with energy and clime policy and runing from waste stuffs, H2O and sewerage to air pollution control – this study can merely give a reappraisal about state policies and market potencies in the environmental engineering sector. Showing the relevant national paperss in a list together with indexed cardinal words, contacts and mention beginnings, the reader obtains a counsel when seeking for elaborate information. The existent figures of planed investings refering environmental substructure, as described within the survey, will change strongly in respect to farther political developments between the EU and Turkey. None the less, from a current position, Turkey will implement most

of the environmental infrastructure-measures due to the demand for action, even without fall ining

the EU.

2.2 Economy and engineering in Turkey

Continuing Economic stableness and progressing structural reforms

Turkish economic system has made of import additions after the 2001 crisis. Leading among these are the accomplishments in growing, rising prices figures, improved budgetary balance and additions in foreign direct investings. A favourable international economic ambiance and a period of fiscal copiousness have played a portion in this accomplishments, every bit much as did the debut of structural reforms, decisive execution of the economic plan, rigorous observation of the budgetary subject, political stableness and advancement toward full rank to EU.

Despite these accomplishments, unluckily, no advancement has been made in work outing the jobs sing the fight of the industrial sector. Structural and micro reforms that would buttress competitory strength could non be undertaken. During the same period the over-valuation of Turkish currency has besides inhibited the industrial competitory strength. Despite these negative factors in drama, the industrial sector however managed to increase exports and go the engine of economic growing. However, this accomplishment has been in bend shadowed by the fact that imports have increased faster than the exports ; and by an unprecedented figure of trade shortage.

During the 2nd half of 2007, a payments crisis in US existent estate ‘s sector emerged, doing anxiousness in planetary markets and arousing a reverse in the positive outlooks that had been prevalent for some clip. Two of import elections – presidential and parliamentary – held in Turkey in the same twelvemonth delegated the economic system to a secondary place ; and, compared to old old ages, a comparatively black image emerged as a consequence. For the first clip in the post-2001 period, the growing aim was underachieved: whereas the aimed one-year figure was 5 % , the realisation was at 4,5 % . Even though the trade shortage decreased proportionately, it surpassed the aimed figure of 54,7 $ one million millions and reached 62,8 $ one million millions. The trade shortage contributed to the current history shortage and the latter broke a record by making 37,4 $ one million millions. Furthermore, during the last two old ages, difficult times began with respect to the anti-inflationary battle, and both in 2006 and 2007 the aims were underachieved: 9,7 % alternatively of 5 % ; and 8,4 % alternatively of 4 % , severally. All these demonstrate that a critical period is now reached in the economic system.

In the international graduated table, pessimist chances have emerged as failings in many markets

persisted, deepened, grew and spread, to the consequence that outlooks about worldwide growing have fallen down to depressions unprecedented during 2000s. Without uncertainty, Turkish economic system is much more bastioned and stronger now than in the yesteryear. However, it should non be forgotten that breakability still exists. The recent growing has been largely dependent on foreign fiscal influxs. Therefore, possible negative developments with respect to pecuniary liquidness in international markets may impact Turkish growing figures negatively by impeding influxs. The state of affairs is exacerbated by the fact that planetary negativenesss are now being accompanied by inquiry Markss about domestic political stableness. In order for this desperate sound to be left behind with the least possible injury, greatest attending should be paid to the economic system and steps should be taken fleetly, prioritising the competitory strength above all. The additions that have been made since 2001 would be at hazard unless such steps are put into consequence without any more hold.

Sustainable development and energy supply security

One of the most of import aims of statesmanship should be to ease the conditions of sustainable development. Sustainable development refers to three facets of sustainability – in economic, environmental and societal public assistance footings. It expresses a relationship between these three complementary facets and a necessity to construct a balance between them. In footings of sustainable development it is of extreme importance to accomplish justness in income distribution, to protect the environment and to run into the additions in the demand for energy in a manner that such a balance would be kept. Procuring energy supplies for the long term is of primary necessity. Energy supply security can be provided by a variegation in providing states and supply mechanisms every bit good as in the types of fuels and relevant engineerings.

Turkey ‘s particular geographical place provides assorted chances in this respect. First, assorted resource correlativities are rendered possible by the handiness of assorted resources. The fact that 70 % of the known energy resources reside in the E and South of Turkey ( in Caucasus, Central Asia and Middle East ) whereas an of import portion in the ingestion takes topographic point in Europe, puts Turkey in a place of theodolite path. It gives the chance to Turkey to construct an energy corridor between E and West. In add-on to this, since many energy transportation lines intersect in Turkey and they are directed to new finishs thenceforth ; and since Turkey besides provides them with port terminuss ; Turkey besides has the chance to construct energy hubs of world-wide importance.

Turkey ‘s particular geographical place provides assorted chances in this respect. First, assorted resource correlativities are rendered possible by the handiness of assorted resources. The fact that 70 % of the known energy resources reside in the E and South of Turkey ( in Caucasus, Central Asia and Middle East ) whereas an of import portion in the ingestion takes topographic point in Europe, puts Turkey in a place of theodolite path. It gives the chance to Turkey to construct an energy corridor between E and West. In add-on to this, since many energy transportation lines intersect in Turkey and they are directed to new finishs thenceforth ; and since Turkey besides provides them with port terminuss ; Turkey besides has the chance to construct energy hubs of world-wide importance.

Turkey has to diminish its current import-dependent place. Energy resources should be diversified ; hydraulic, solar and wind powers should be exploited to a greater extent ; and seek for new fossil fuels should be given a greater attending. Furthermore, increased transportation of fossil fuels from the Middle East, Caucasus and Central Asia, their processing in certain energy terminuss and their conveyance to Europe through maritime or grapevines would lend non merely to the docket of energy supply security but besides to Turkey ‘s economic development ; and increase its geopolitical importance.

Attention should be paid to the fact that international prestigiousness would accrue to Turkey if attempts toward the development of new energy engineerings like H power could get down and come to fruition in Turkey. Development of energy engineerings should hence have their several portion in the resource allotment.

3.Scientific and Technological Progress

Scientific and technological advancement has historically contributed to the economic development of states and has therefore been an of import component in their competition. In the hereafter as good, scientific and technological advancement is expected to follow the finish provided by economic policies and competitory schemes. Of cardinal importance in this context are the building of the substructure necessary to construct an informational society every bit good as increased attention devoted to strategic Technologies like Information and Communication Technologies ; Nanotechnology ; Biotechnology and Genetics ; Energy and Environmental Technologies ; Material Technologies ; Mechatronics ; Design Technologies ; and Production Process Technologies.

In order to recognize technological advancement and procure its articulation into economic development ; scientific publications, patent acquisitions, hi-tech industrial subdivisions, information-led services and hi-tech exports should be encouraged. Harmonization of scientific and technological research with the “ existent sector, ” to the consequence that it is antiphonal to the challenges of economic development, is needed. “ Techno-economy Institutes ” should be founded in order to accomplish an incorporate design of economic policies and scientific and technological policy ; every bit good as to develop able forces ( techno-economists ) that would administrate such a procedure. Techno-parks, which now boast the figure of 30 country-wide, should be further multiplied, with an attempt of increased cooperation between the university and the industrial sector.

If suited conditions are provided, Turkey can besides claim a portion in the resettlement of multinational companies ‘ R & A ; D ( research and development ) activities, as portion of a world-wide economic move “ into the East. ” Such conditions could merely be established with continued political stableness and economic growing ; and with an attempt to work out regional jobs through peaceable diplomatic steps.

2.3 Environmental TechnologiesA

Investings in environmental engineerings are extremely supported by authorities in Turkey. Attracting environmentally friendly investings is besides a cardinal aim of the Investment Support and Promotion Agency of Turkey ( ISPAT ) .

Local municipalities in Turkey besides play an of import function in recycling, H2O purification, waste-sewage intervention, environmental redress and solid waste direction.

Energy efficiency is an indispensable portion of the environmental policies in Turkey. Turkey has implemented most of the European statute law on energy efficiency.

Renewable energy is an of import section of environmental engineerings. Turkey ‘s primary energy beginnings include hydropower, geothermic, wood, animate being and works waste, solar and weave energy. Turkey ‘s geographical place has several advantages for extended usage of most of these renewable energy beginnings. The Renewable Energy Law was enacted in 2005 in order to promote renewable energy coevals in competitory market conditions.

A

Harmonizing to Vision 2023, the Turkish National Technology Foresight Program, Turkey has developed schemes on environmental engineerings chiefly renewable energy, waste direction, H engineerings and H2O intervention.

Turkey is an active spouse of Agenda 21 which provides an action program for a planetary partnership in the field of sustainable development.

The new inducement government introduced by Turkey includes involvement support for environmental investings.

Turkey possesses a significant sum of rivers and lakes that offer ideal chances for little every bit good as large-scale energy companies.A

Increasing the portion of renewables in energy coevals to 30 per centum

Full use of hydropower, more than duplicating the bing capacity of hydropower

Increasing air current power to 20,000 MW ( up from 1,694 MW in 2010 )

Power workss with a capacity of 600 MW geothermal, 3,000 MW solar energy

Making Turkey one of the top 10 states in solar energy worldwide

Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency

The largest potency for environmental engineerings in Turkey can be found in the country of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Actually, Turkey is able to cover merely 28 % of its energy demand from domestic beginnings. At the same clip forecasts province an one-year addition in ingestion of primary energies with 6.2 % p.a. and of electricity with 8.1 % p.a. This seems reasonably realistic insofar since the existent per capita demand of energy of Turkey with 15,000 kWh/cap.a merely represents one tierce compared to OECD-average and due to the strong economic growing of Turkey an increased demand for energy-intensive consumer merchandises ( e.g. autos, air conditioning, warming, family contraptions ) can be expected. Thus, for the following old ages Turkey has to reconsider its scheme refering electrical power supply particularly as for the building of new power workss.

The economic development potency for hydroelectric power in Turkey represents around 28,000 MW. This corresponds with an extra produced sum of electricity of 100,000 GWh/a and a volume of investing of 114 bn Euro. In this field at that place exists a large market potency for Austrian companies, which present a long-run experience non merely with edifice under building but every bit good modernizing and betterment of public presentation of bing power workss. Up to now the building of hydroelectric power workss in Turkey was limited chiefly to big undertakings. There remain still tremendous potencies in the country of moderate-sized power workss and little hydroelectric power workss. Refering little hydroelectric power workss societal and economic impacts due to building would be relatively low excessively, and Austrian companies can offer a more than 100-year-old experience both in building and operation ( e.g. mechanization of workss ) .

The potency of air current power in Turkey is really high as good, and legion undertaking applications for the building of air current Parkss are already bing. The economic potency is estimated at 48,000 MW, matching to a volume of investing of about 57 bn Euro.Although Austria itself does non bring forth full air current power workss, it is linear to the car industry an of import provider of constituents such as air current power generators or particular synthetics for the building of wings. Already today, Austrian wind-poweroperators are active throughout Europe whereas affiliate companies have been created in these states. Austrian air current power companies represent established experience in planning, building and operation of workss particularly in cragged parts.

Climatic stipulations for the usage of solar energy in Turkey are well more favorable than in cardinal Europe. Annual solar radiation is about 30 % higher than in Austria and seasonal airing more changeless. Although the thermic usage of solar energy in Turkey already is established in the private sphere, the denseness of aggregators with 0.13 mA?/cap is well lower than in Austria with 0.4 mA?/cap. In order to obtain the same denseness of aggregator surface as in Austria, another 29 million mA? would hold to be installed, matching to a volume of investing of 16 b. Euro.

Wholly the economic thermic potency of solar energy is estimated 131,000 GWh/a by

the Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration ( EIE ) matching to 300 million mA? aggregator surface. So investings up to 165 bn Euro would be made. Austrian companies are heaving a technological lead over the development of top-quality aggregators for the coevals of heat with higher degrees of Temperature ( up to 180A° C ) whereby apart from the usage in private families an tremendous concern market emerges. Particularly in the comfortable touristry parts on the West and South Coast of Turkey there

are immense market potency for Austrian suppliers of solar energy.

The potency for geothermic power in Turkey is estimated at 31,500 MWth and 500 MWel Most beginnings of geothermic power in Turkey are of excessively low degree of temperature in order to be used for the coevals of electricity with the usage of conventional engineerings. However, they can be used for infinite warming and hot H2O preperation every bit good as for low themperature thermic application in the industry. In 2006 geothermic power systems on the graduated table of wholly 82 MWel have beed in operation or under building. Actually, 2,843 MW are estimated being economically functional.

Biomass in Turkey really is largely used in privated housholds in the signifier of firewood for heating. Hitherto unutilised potencies of biomass are located in the usage of crop residues in agribusiness and in biogenic waste stuff from the nutrient industry. The Entire potency of biomass in Turkey ranges up to 23,000 GWh/a, by the usage of droppings another 2.8-3.9 bn mA? biogas can be generated. Due to the low demand of heating in many parts of Turkey, the waste-heat of power-generation with biogas could merely be used partially. Thus the use of gas-scrubbing-technology for biogas as developed in Austria has a peculiar high market chance in Turkey. At present Combined Heat and Power-solutions ( CHP ) in Turkey for the coevals of electricity is used merely at a scope of 4.4 % , compared to Austria with it ‘s 16 % of CHP. By the usage of modern chilling engineerings such as soaking up infrigidation with waste heat chilling and air-conditioning can be realised. Therewith a new market for CHP in Turkey arises by utilizing waste heat in winter for warming and in summer for chilling. Here, those Austrian constructs developed in connexion with the usage of district-heating for chilling and infrigidation, severally solar chilling have a high market potency.

Waste direction

Waste direction in Turkey really is characterised by dumping in unsecure landfills. Disposable informations refering waste accretion and recycling are demoing strong seasonal and regional differences. In Turkey every bit good as in many threshold states, an extended informal market for recycling is bing, where largely persons are roll uping and selling the reclaimable fraction such as PET-bottles, metals, glass and paper. In touristry parts the sum of waste is changing to 600 % between summer and winter months. In general, the portion of bio-waste in Turkey is higher than in Central Europe. In order to carry through EU Directives in the country of waste, around 9.5 bn Euro have to be invested in Turkey, thereof the biggest portion in implementing the Landfill- Directive.

Water direction

Water direction has a peculiarly high significance, since in many parts of the state available H2O resources per capita are far lower than e.g. in Central Europe. In big metropoliss with & gt ; 100,000 dwellers around two tierces of sewerage H2O are cleaned by organic effluent intervention workss, in colonies with less than 100,000 dwellers merely 14 % of waste H2O is treated this manner. For the execution of the EU Directive on H2O and sewerage H2O, investings up to 34 bn Euro are necessary. The major portion of 18 bn Euro can be found in the country of effluent intervention. In topographic point investings above all for the building and modernization of effluent intervention workss, the extension and Restoration of the sewerage web every bit good as the intervention of sewerage sludge will be necessary.

Air protection

Refering air protection there are considerable jobs in Turkey due to the heavy usage of coal particularly of the sulfurous brown coal, both in the energy and industrial sector every bit good as in the domestic sphere. A farther pressing issue are legion fuming and smoke landfills with smouldering fires ( partially due to self-ignition ) taking to a enormous formation of toxic substances. High market potencies can be found in the country of fluke gas scouring at power workss and industrial workss every bit good as at fuel transition from coal to gas, biomass or solar energy. If the replacing of coal as fuel is an built-in portion of a undertaking, the shift to renewable energies can be realized more easy and economically, since the replacing of the fire works ( warmer ) has to be carried out anyhow.

Conveyance

The conveyance sector in Turkey really still is characterized by a low degree of motorisation of 155 motor vehicles per factory dwellers ( compared to 545 motor vehicles on 1000 dwellers in Austria ) , nevertheless, single traffic is increasing quickly. Due to patronize traffic jams there is a monolithic demand for environmentally friendly and efficient public conveyance systems such as low-floor ropewaies, liquid gas coachs, rapid train railway systems and resistances in metropolitan countries. Since Austrian procedure technology companies are already exporting such advanced transit systems worldwide, there is a immense market potency for urban transit systems and besides for modern engineerings in the country of conventional rail.