Teaching Upper Intermediate Students To Take Notes English Language Essay
The intent of this assignment is to describe on an EAP class design simulation. I have decided to concentrate on EAP for two grounds. First, I am presently learning at a university in Turkey where I have the undertaking of fixing pupils for life in an English-medium acquisition environment. This assignment provides me with an chance to analyze this acquisition context and place factors that influence acquisition. Second, I conducted a similar undertaking whilst finishing an MA in Applied Linguistics. During this undertaking, I designed a pre-sessional EAP class for a group of multi-lingual pupils come ining a university in England. I now work preponderantly with mono-lingual groups in a non-English speech production state and am interested in look intoing how these factors influence class design.
1.2. Theories and Principles
EAP rose to prominence in the 1970s ( Jordan 1997 ) and its importance has since increased with the outgrowth of English as the lingua franca of the planetary academic community ( Hyland & A ; Hamp-Lyons 2002 ) . EAP has been defined as the instruction of English with the end of enabling scholars to utilize that linguistic communication to analyze or carry on research ( Flowerdew & A ; Peacock 2001 ) and involves assisting pupils to develop lingual, academic and cultural competency ( Gillett & A ; Wray 2006 ) . EAP classs may be taught in English speech production contexts, or in states in which English is used as a foreign or 2nd linguistic communication ( Jordan 1997 ) .
EAP is categorised as a signifier of English for Specific Purposes ( ESP ) and a differentiation has been made between English for General Academic Purposes ( EGAP ) and English for Specific Academic Purposes ( ESAP ) ( Blue 1988 ) . EGAP courses, like the one employed in my ain context, learn a ‘common nucleus ‘ of linguistic communication and academic accomplishments that all university pupils require. In contrast, ESAP courses focal point on the linguistic communication and accomplishments needed in one peculiar academic subject. However, despite this divide, analyses of EAP classs have revealed that they by and large portion the following shaping characteristics ( Robinson 1991: 2 ) :
They are end directed.
They are based on the demands of the pupils.
The continuance of the class is clearly specified.
The pupils tend to be grownups over the age of 18.
A high degree of English proficiency is non needfully required.
The demand to develop academic every bit good as lingual competency has received considerable attending in EAP literature ( Ballard 1996 ; Sowden 2003 ) . Ballard ( 1996 ) argues that foreign pupils frequently require aid adjusting to the typical academic civilization of western universities. For case, she identifies pupils struggle to accommodate to the critical attack to larning expected of them in western universities. This statement applies to my ain instruction context because many of the lectors are either from or hold been educated in western states and, accordingly, have peculiar outlooks about how pupils should act.
The demand to integrate both lingual and academic accomplishments into EAP classs has lead many authors to see the type of course of study to use during these classs. Task-based or procedure course of studies are centred on the cognitive Acts of the Apostless pupils perform at universities. These syllabi emphasise the usage of reliable activities and English is viewed simply as the medium through which these activities are performed ( Ballard 1996 ) . Similarly, skills-based course of study, as employed in my ain establishment, advocate the development of accomplishments that pupils need to win at university. In contrast, content-based course of study underscore the stuff pupils study at university. These syllabi promote the analysis of linguistic communication within relevant discourse ( Spanos 1987 ) . Likewise, text-based or genre-based course of study ease the scrutiny of linguistic communication within reliable contexts ( Feez 2002 ) . Importantly, Flowerdew ( 2005 ) high spots that, depending on pupil demands, elements of different course of studies can be combined to make an incorporate class.
1.3. My Own Experiences
My current teaching place is my first schoolroom exposure to EAP and EAP pupils. Research conducted into this group of pupils suggests that they have a figure of specifying features. For illustration, Todd ( 2003 ) identifies that these pupils are normally more mature and motivated. Waters and Waters ( 1992 ) suggest that successful university pupils are able to believe critically and logically, are self-conscious and self-assured, and are willing and able to take duty for their ain acquisition. Unfortunately, in my ain context, the pupils have by and large merely finished high school and have non yet to the full developed these features. For case, many pupils expect instructors to state them what to make and are diffident about how to pull off their ain personal survey clip. Therefore, instructors must assist pupils develop personal traits every bit good as lingual and academic accomplishments.
My old experience of planing an EAP class highlighted the outrageousness of the undertaking. Whilst analyzing the demands of the pupils, I listed the accomplishments and sub-skills successful university pupils employ. On completion, I had created an unwieldy list of accomplishments and a pre-sessional class could non explicitly address all of them. Therefore, the class I finally designed employed a task-based course of study that allowed pupils to see and reflect on the acquisition activities they would take part in at university. They so built their failings into long-run development programs.
1.4. Deductions of the Literature and My Experience
Based on the literature and contemplation on old experiences, I believe the undermentioned deductions are relevant to the design of the EAP class and the demands analysis procedure.
The needs analysis must place the academic sections the pupils will be come ining. If the pupils are analyzing similar topics, an ESAP attack may be adopted. However, if they are analyzing different topics, an EGAP has to be used.
The needs analysis must analyze the pupils ‘ demands in relation to their lingual, academic and cultural competence.
The needs analysis must be used to place the pupils ‘ chief countries of failing. It will non be possible to learn all of the assorted accomplishments and sub-skills that the pupils need to win at university. Alternatively, the class must prioritize the primary failings.
A determination will hold to be made sing the most appropriate course of study type to run into the demands of the pupils.
2. Needs Analysis
2.1. Group Profile
To advance a learning-centred attack, a questionnaire ( see Appendix 1 ) was used to roll up informations about scholar demands ( Hutchinson and Waters 1987 ) . A questionnaire was the most practical method to roll up this information. The consequences ( Appendix A ) are summarized below:
21 pupils ( 13 males and 8 females ) .
The mean age is 20 ( runing from 18 – 26 ) .
18 Turkish and 3 Iraki pupils.
The pupils are come ining assorted sections at an English-medium university.
Sport, movies and music are common involvements.
Both deductive and inductive attacks.
Working on their ain, in braces and in groups.
Having input into what and how they learn.
Both teacher and self-assessment.
The pupils perceive reading and speech production as their stronger accomplishments. Listening and composing are accomplishments they need to better.
The pupils besides completed a acquisition manners questionnaire ( Appendix 2 ) . They favour a combination of ocular, audile and kinaesthetic activities ( Appendix B ) .
2.2. Identifying Needs
Needs analysis ( NA ) is the procedure instructors use to find and prioritise the demands for which a peculiar group of scholars require a linguistic communication ( Richards 2001 ) . These demands may arise from the pupils or from other stakeholders such as the establishment. To measure the demands of this category, I performed a mark state of affairs analysis ( TSA ) to place the accomplishments pupils require when they enter the university ( Munby 1978 ) . I examined the course of study used within my establishment. This was the most practical method because this course of study was created following a linguistic communication audit and, therefore, provided a comprehensive dislocation of mark demands. The TSA highlighted my establishment employs a skills-based attack.
As discussed in subdivision 1, successful university pupils must use a huge scope of sub-skills. Consequently, I performed a present state of affairs analysis ( PSA ) ( Richterich & A ; Chancerel 1980 ) to enable me to place and prioritise spreads between the pupils ‘ current skill-set and those they require. I used diagnostic trials to roll up information about reading, listening and composing because they are the most practical method to obtain accurate quantitative informations about pupils ‘ cognition ( Hughes 2003 ) . I used schoolroom observations to prove speech production because this was the most practical manner to roll up information about a big figure of pupils. Following the findings of the TSA, I employed a skills-based attack and assessed the pupils listening, reading, composing and talking accomplishments.
2.3. Diagnostic Testing
Diagnostic trials are conducted at the beginning of a period of survey to roll up informations about pupils ‘ current province of linguistic communication development ( Hughes 2003 ) . To guarantee the pupils perceived these trials as being utile ; therefore fulfilling the status of face cogency ( Gronlund 1998 ) , I replicated activities the pupils perform in the establishment ‘s scrutinies. This besides satisfied the status of content cogency.
Students took notes while listening to a talk and so answered comprehension inquiries utilizing their notes ( Appendix 3 ) .
Students answered comprehension inquiries about an academic text necessitating them to scan, skim and infer significance ( Appendix 4 ) .
The pupils wrote an academic paragraph ( Appendix 5 ) that was marked for grammar, vocabulary, content and administration. To increase scorer dependability, a co-worker checked the classs ( Hughes 2003 ) .
The pupils were observed in category and marked on grammar, vocabulary, eloquence and pronunciation. Once once more, a co-worker checked the classs.
Grammar and Vocabulary
These points were assessed indirectly through authorship and speech production.
2.4.1. Present Situation Analysis
The diagnostic trials revealed that, on norm, the pupils achieved go throughing Markss ( above 60 % ) in reading and speech production, but failed in listening and composing ( Appendix C.1 ) . This matches the pupils ‘ self-assessment. The authorship tonss highlighted the greatest troubles concern grammar, vocabulary and administration ( Appendix C.2 ) . The pupils struggled to utilize a scope of lexis and had jobs with grammatical and lexical truth ( e.g. Appendix 6 ) . However, during feedback, the pupils self-corrected the bulk of their grammar errors. This suggests they were public presentation instead than lingual mistakes. The pupils said they have jobs analyzing vocabulary and normally merely interpret from L2 to L1. The pupils besides had trouble utilizing cohesive devices and organizing their authorship to run into academic conventions and answer inquiries straight.
The note-taking sheets ( e.g. Appendix 7 ) revealed the pupils struggled to insulate of import information and recorded excess information. The pupils failed to use schemes to assist them enter information rapidly. Interestingly, when the pupils completed the listening trial as a while-listening undertaking, they had small trouble replying the inquiries. This suggests the pupils ‘ jobs concern note-taking instead than listening. The pupils explained they have had small experience of this undertaking. This supports the impression that these pupils must develop academic competence.
2.4.2. Target Situation Analysis
The course of study of the establishment revealed successful pupils must be able to utilize a assortment of accomplishments and schemes when taking notes from talks and composing ( Appendix D ) . To look into these accomplishments further, the pupils completed a self-assessment questionnaire ( Appendix 8 ) . This questionnaire performed the double map of roll uping informations about the pupils ‘ abilities, and increasing their consciousness of the accomplishments and schemes needed to win at university ( Allright 1982 ) . The consequences showed they are non peculiarly confident about composing and note-taking sub-skills ( Appendix E ) .
2.5. Precedences for the Planned Course
The class will learn EGAP because the pupils belong to different modules. The consequences of the diagnostic trials revealed taking notes from talks and composing to be common failings. This confirms the pupils ‘ self-assessment of their demands. The class will concentrate on these accomplishments and supply the pupils with chances to develop and pattern schemes they can use when taking notes. The class will besides raise consciousness of the administration of academic authorship and advance effectual vocabulary usage and mistake rectification. Finally, as mentioned in subdivision 1, because the bulk of pupils have merely finished high school, the class will take to increase consciousness of university survey.
3. Course Proposal
3.1. Course Proposal
In conformity with the NA, this EGAP class will concentrate on taking notes from talks and, academic authorship. It will be taught over 1 hebdomad and consists of 20 hours of schoolroom clip with 4.5 hours of extra authorship tutorials ( 3 excess tutorial hours will be available if excess instruction is needed ) . It will supplement the 8-week class the pupils are presently taking. The class will enable the pupils to reflect on, intensively practise, and consolidate the accomplishments and schemes they have already started developing. This will let the pupils to turn to failings and develop assurance in readying for following class. As such, the auxiliary class will be taught at the terminal of the pupils ‘ current class.
3.2. Goals and Aims
Course of study interior decorators province the ends and aims of classs to permeate their creative activities with intent and way ( Graves 2000 ) . Goals can be defined as statements refering the general intents of a class while aims are specific statements depicting how ends are to be realised ( Richards 2001 ) . The ends of this class are to develop the pupils ‘ abilities to compose academic essays and paragraphs and, take notes from talks. The class besides aims to increase the pupils ‘ assurance of taking notes and raise their consciousness of how to win in academic life. To accomplish these ends, I have formulated 19 aims: 4 listening aims ( LO1-LO4 ) , 4 note-taking aims ( NO1-NO4 ) , 8 composing aims ( WO1-WO8 ) , 1 vocabulary aim ( VO1 ) , 1 grammar aim ( GO1 ) and 1 affectional aim ( AO1 ) . For full inside informations of the ends and aims see Appendix 9.
As identified in subdivisions 1 and 2, the pupils need to develop an consciousness of what life is like in university sections ( Sowden 2003 ) . Consequently, the class will use an incorporate accomplishments approach that simulates the canonical sequence of university survey ( Appendix F ) . The lectures the pupils will listen to and take notes on will supply lexical input about the subjects they will compose approximately. The pupils will supplement this input through farther reading and vocabulary survey outside category ( e.g. Appendix F, Day 1 ) . This self-study responds to the pupils ‘ acquisition penchants and encourages them to take duty for their acquisition, a characteristic crucial for academic success ( Waters and Waters 1992 ) .
Based on the analysis of scholar demands, a assortment of different attacks will be employed in the schoolroom. First, the hearing and note-taking constituent will include awareness raising and contemplation activities. The pupils have small experience of this undertaking and these activities remedy this. Second, both inductive and deductive acquisition will be employed because the pupils enjoy both. Third, the class will integrate single, brace and group work. For illustration, the pupils will brainstorm thoughts for composing undertakings in braces before sharing with the group. The pupils will execute the composing separately. Finally, the class will use both P-P-P and T-T-T lesson forms depending on whether the pupils are meeting constructs for the first clip or revisiting them.
3.4. Course Content
The hearing and note-taking constituent of the class physiques from portion to whole ( Richards 2001 ) . The diagnostic trials revealed the pupils have trouble placing of import information and utilizing note-taking schemes. This class allows the pupils to increase their consciousness of and rehearse hearing and note-taking schemes in isolation before holding chances to utilize them, foremost, in tandem and, so, holistically ( e.g. Appendix F, Day 1 ) . Furthermore, the pupils will rehearse these schemes whilst reading before using them when listening. This componential attack recycles aims and, allows pupils to automatize schemes individually so, when utilizing them holistically, they find it less cognitively disputing ( Field 2008 ) .
The composing constituent of the class physiques from simple to complex ( Richards 2001 ) . The diagnostic trials revealed the pupils have trouble replying inquiries straight and developing thoughts logically. Consequently, the pupils will rehearse this accomplishment in organic structure paragraphs before come oning to full essays. The composing constituent will besides develop from whole to portion ( Richards 2001 ) with pupils analyzing the administration of full texts before analyzing and rehearsing composing the single constituents ( e.g. Appendix F, Day 2 ) . The pupils identified they enjoy inductive acquisition and this methodological analysis facilitates this. The pupils will finish the authorship outside category. This removes the force per unit area of clip bounds and emphasises the composing procedure instead than merchandise ( Walker and Perez Riu 2008 ) .
The grammar and vocabulary instruction will be reactive as the diagnostic trials highlighted the pupils ‘ troubles chiefly concern public presentation instead than lingual mistakes. The pupils ‘ authorship will be marked with grammar and vocabulary errors highlighted utilizing an mistake codification. The pupils will so re-write and self-correct their texts in the tutorials. The pupils enjoy both teacher and self-correction, and both inductive and deductive acquisition. This methodological analysis responds to these demands. The tutorials will incorporate fewer pupils so the pupils will hold greater entree to a instructor if they need to inquire inquiries.
The stuffs to be used in this class have been designed for the intents of English instruction ( Appendix F ) . The linguistic communication is graded and, in the talks, the rate of address is slower. This will let the pupils to concentrate on developing the targeted accomplishments and schemes alternatively of worrying about linguistic communication. It besides responds to the pupils ‘ affectional demands. They are highly dying about taking notes and, if exposed to reliable talks, might be overwhelmed ( Guariento and Morely 2001 ) . The usage of unauthentic stuff is besides offset by the genuineness of the undertakings. The pupils will hold to take notes and write essays in their sections so they are likely to be motivated ( Long and Crookes 1992 ) . Unfortunately, the usage of ranked stuff limits the subjects to those in the coursebooks. I have chosen talks on the subjects of wellness, society and relationships. These subjects are accessible to all of the pupils and the TSA revealed they feature in the coursebooks and tests of the establishment.
3.6. Institutional Constraints
A figure of institutional restraints have influenced the design of this class. First, the handiness of instructors affected the tutorials. Ideally, the tutorials would incorporate a upper limit of five pupils. However, this would necessitate in surplus of 5 instructors and this was non possible. Consequently, two instructors will carry on the tutorials and the category will be halved. Second, the establishments ‘ scrutinies influenced the methodological analysis used on the class. The pupils will sit a skills-based scrutiny shortly after take parting in this auxiliary class. Consequently, I decided to utilize comprehension inquiries to mensurate note-taking ability. The pupils perform similar undertakings in their tests so they will likely be more motivated because they can use the schemes they practise during this class.
4.1. Appraisal Principles
Assessment is an umbrella term mentioning to the aggregation of informations about the abilities or accomplishments of scholars taking a peculiar class ( Brindley 2001 ) . It may happen formatively ( during the class ) or summatively ( at the terminal of the class ) . Appraisal can be performed utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methodological analysis ( Jordan 1997 ) . Qualitative methodological analysis may include schoolroom observation or interviews while the chief quantitative method is proving.
Trials may be employed at assorted phases during a class. Proficiency and diagnostic trials are administered at the beginning of a class to supply information about scholars ‘ bing abilities ( Hughes 2003 ) . In contrast, accomplishment trials are used formatively or summatively to measure pupils ‘ advancement and place what they have learnt from a peculiar class ( Brindley 2001 ) . In order to be effectual, trials must be both valid and dependable ( Hughes 2003 ) . Validity concerns the ability of trials to mensurate what they are supposed to while dependability is the extent to which trials can be repeated accomplishing consistent consequences ( Brindley 2001 ) .
4.2. Monitoring Learner Progress
Advancement in the hearing and note-taking constituent will be assessed through comprehension inquiries and self-assessment ( Appendix 10, Days 1, 3 and 5 ) . This appraisal is integrated into the class and will be conducted in the concluding block of note-taking yearss. The comprehension inquiries include multiple pick and short open-ended inquiries. The self-assessment requires the pupils to reflect on their usage of schemes practised and rate themselves ( e.g. Appendix 11 ) . The pupils will besides roll up their note-taking sheets, comprehension inquiries and self-assessment sheets in a Learning Portfolio ( LP ) . These will work as records of their acquisition procedures and, be used for summational appraisal and contemplation intents ( Nunes 2004 ) .
Advancement in the authorship constituent will be assessed through the completion of three composing undertakings: one paragraph and two essays ( Appendix 10, Days 2, 4 and 5 ) . The pupils ‘ usage of grammar and vocabulary will be assessed indirectly through these undertakings. The pupils will compose a first and 2nd bill of exchange for each undertaking and both bill of exchanges will be marked and graded. The first bill of exchanges are to be completed outside category. The 2nd bill of exchanges will be started in composing tutorials and finished outside of category. Both bill of exchanges of each undertaking will be included in their LPs.
4.3. Measuring Learner Outcomes
The pupils ‘ LPs will organize the footing of the summational appraisal ( Appendix 10, Day 6 ) . The pupils will reflect on their work and self-assess their advancement in each of the aims ( Appendix 12 ) . In one to one tutorials, the pupils will discourse this self-assessment and form long-run development ends to react to their failings. This appraisal will be low bets because the pupils will shortly be taking a high bets scrutiny in the establishment and do non necessitate farther force per unit area.
The determination to utilize both instructor and self-assessment in the formative and summational appraisal responds to the pupils ‘ acquisition penchants. Self-assessment besides encourages pupils to be more active and take duty for their acquisition ( Harris 1997 ) . The usage of LPs combines formative and summational appraisal, and this helps pupils to better understand their strengths and failings ( Lam & A ; Lee 2009 ) . It besides allows the pupils to supervise their development in note-taking ; therefore, increasing their assurance.
4.4. How Assessment Principles Influenced Assessment Methodology
The appraisal methods aim to conform to the rule of cogency. Adopting a skills-based attack achieves construct cogency. The TSA revealed my establishment advocates this theory and the assessment methods of this class reflect this. The pupils will be assessed on their ability to use accomplishments and schemes when taking notes from talks and, composing paragraphs and essays. The class besides follows theoretical developments in written appraisal. The usage of LPs instead than timed exams emphasises the composing procedure instead than the merchandise ( Walker and Perez Riu 2008 ) . The usage of skills-based appraisal besides satisfies the conditions of both content and face cogency. The assessment undertakings mirror those performed on this class and, during regular classs and scrutinies. Consequently, the pupils are likely to see the class and appraisal techniques as appropriate ( Gronlund 1998 ) .
The appraisal methods besides aim to conform to principle of dependability. The hearing and note-taking constituent of the class will be assessed utilizing multiple pick and short open-ended inquiries and, these will be marked utilizing a standardized reply key. This will increase scorer dependability. The written undertakings will be marked utilizing the composing standards of the establishment. These standards are on a regular basis standardised. Therefore, although subjective, scorer dependability will be enhanced.
4.5. Constraints and Opportunities
Whilst be aftering how to measure this class, I encountered a figure of restraints. First, I decided to utilize comprehension inquiries to measure hearing and note-taking because this is how my establishment assesses these accomplishments. The pupils are familiar with this signifier of appraisal so, had I chosen a different method, I may hold experienced negative slipstream with pupils neglecting to value my pick of methodological analysis ( Hughes 2003 ) . Furthermore, by utilizing comprehension inquiries, I can work slipstream from the scrutinies positively to actuate the pupils. Second, I faced practicality jobs with the written appraisal. The pupils will finish their authorship undertakings at place and have tutorials about them the following twenty-four hours. Therefore, to let for marker, tutorials would hold start at 10am with regular categories being taught in the afternoon. The pupils will subject their work via e-mail by 8am. This provides the instructors sufficient clip to grade and, besides imposes deadlines on the pupils. Such deadlines are portion of university survey and the pupils must take duty for run intoing them.
4.6. Course Evaluation
Evaluation is the procedure of roll uping information about a class, both formatively and summatively, with the intent of finding how effectual it is and to steer determinations about instruction and acquisition ( Murphy 2000 ) . The rating methods to be used on this class are summarised in Appendix 13. In this class, LPs play a important function in rating. The information in these portfolios will assist me do both formative and summational judgements about whether aims are being met. The formative judgements will be peculiarly utile because they will assist me to make up one’s mind whether to utilize any of the free tutorials to supply extra instruction. In add-on, the pupils will finish a questionnaire to measure the class summatively ( Appendix 12 ) . This questionnaire will let the pupils to rate the utility of the activities, stuffs, instruction and appraisal methods, and do open-ended remarks about the class.
Analyzing at university is an highly complex procedure necessitating pupils to take part in a assortment of larning activities and, utilize a huge array of accomplishments and sub-skills ( Munby 1978 ) . The undertaking of EAP practicians, who help pupils get these accomplishments, is awkward because, in add-on to learning lingual competency, they besides have to assist pupils develop academic and cultural competency and, personal features. When planing my class, I responded to this challenge, by carry oning an analysis of the pupils ‘ demands. This analysis enabled me to place and prioritize the most urgent failings of the pupils. Therefore, I was able to maximise the benefit that the pupils would have from what is a comparatively short class. I believe that, holding taken the class, the pupils will, non merely be better equipped to take notes from talks and, write paragraphs and essays, they will besides experience more confident about making so.
The undertaking of planing an EAP class for my pupils was made even more ambitious because most of them have merely finished high school and are unfamiliar with university survey. Therefore, I believe that my determination to plan the class to imitate university survey will be peculiarly valuable to them in the long-run. Although the pupils will still hold a batch more to larn about academic survey, I believe that, when they enter their sections, they will be more cognizant of what is expected of them both inside and outside of category. Furthermore, I feel that, through being exposed to the usage of LPs as a method of larning and appraisal, the pupils will hold taken a immense measure towards to going more self-conscious and responsible for their ain acquisition. These features will play a cardinal function in their lives as successful university pupils.