Success In A Turkish Tertiary Context English Language Essay
This survey is designed to lend to research done on the relationship between English linguistic communication proficiency and academic accomplishment. It investigates the relationship between pupils ‘ English linguistic communication proficiency tonss and their first semester class point norms in an English-medium private university in Istanbul, Turkey. 45 pupils ‘ English linguistic communication proficiency entire tonss and separate tonss from listening, reading and composing constituents were used to run a Pearson correlativity with their GPAs. The consequences showed about no correlativity between the GPAs and the proficiency exam entire tonss nor the separate hearing, reading and authorship tonss and the GPAs.
1.1 Statement of Purpose
Although the relationship between English linguistic communication proficiency and academic success in establishments where English is the medium of direction may look evident to some, as discussed by Graham ( 1987 ) , it may be hard to find this relationship because research indicates that there are many other factors besides proficiency in English that are of import to academic success. However, she does reason that a minimal degree of proficiency, below which pupils are much likely to be unsuccessful, is required if academic success is targeted.
The present survey was designed to happen out the relationship ( if there is any ) between English linguistic communication proficiency test tonss and pupils ‘ subsequent accomplishment in their undergraduate grade plans in a Turkish Tertiary context where medium of direction is English. If pupils ‘ English proficiency is a important factor impacting their academic success, it is expected that as their proficiency test scores increase so should their class point norms.
1.2 Literature Review
This literature reappraisal efforts to do a brief sum-up of research on the relationship between English linguistic communication proficiency and academic success in different contexts where English is the medium of direction. The articles referenced in this reappraisal are outside of the Turkish context, which may bespeak a spread. Surveies included in the reappraisal are by Hill, K. , Storch, N. and Lynch, B. ( 1999 ) ; Kerstjen, M. and Nery, C. ( 2000 ) ; Feast, V. ( 2002 ) ; Bayliss, D. and Raymond, P. M. ( 2004 ) ; Maleki, A. and Zangani, I. ( 2007 ) ; Fakeye, D. O. and Ogunsiji, Y. ( 2009 ) ; Sahragard, R. , Baharloo, A. and Soozandehfar, S. M. A. ( 2011 ) ; Cho, Y. and Bridgeman, B. ( 2012 ) .
In their research carried out at the University of Melbourne, Hill, Storch and Lynch ( 1999 ) investigated how utile IELTS and TOEFL trials are in foretelling whether pupils are ready for the Australian academic context. In their survey, the research workers included informations from questionnaires and interviews along with pupils ‘ IELTS and/or TOEFL tonss and GPAs. The questionnaires and interviews revealed that pupils think their academic public presentation is affected by “ non-linguistic factors ” . In add-on, the research workers have found weak correlativities between pupils ‘ English linguistic communication proficiency and academic success. As a consequence, Hill, Storch and Lynch conclude that “ neither IELTS nor TOEFL appeared to be peculiarly good forecasters ” ( p.72 ) of academic accomplishment.
Another survey was carried out by Kerstjen and Nery ( 2000 ) to find how effectual the IELTS trial is as forecaster of academic public presentation. 113 international pupils from two sectors, the TAFE and Higher Education in an Australian third establishment were involved in the survey. The research workers correlated the pupils ‘ IELTS tonss with their first-semester GPAs. They besides conducted pupil questionnaires and staff interviews. They found that the prognostic consequence of academic public presentation from the IELTS trial was merely “ little to medium ” . Their determination was different, nevertheless, when they looked into the prognostic consequence of the reading constituent of IELTS individually. The reading trial was found to be a important forecaster of academic public presentation in both the entire sample and the Higher Education group. On the other manus, no constituent of the IELTS trial was found to be a forecaster of academic public presentation in the TAFE group.
Feast ( 2002 ) besides conducted a survey in the Australian context to look into the relationship between English linguistic communication proficiency and public presentation at university. For this intent, English proficiency degree of international pupils at a South Australian university was measured by IELTS trial tonss, and their academic public presentation was measured by their GPAs. In contrast to Kerstjen and Nery ‘s findings, Feast ‘s survey, revealed “ a important and positive relationship ” between the IELTS tonss and GPAs.
Another survey, carried out by Bayliss and Raymond ( 2004 ) with the same intent of antecedently mentioned surveies, investigated the nexus between English linguistic communication proficiency and academic success. The English linguistic communication proficiency of international pupils in an MBA plan was measured by an advanced ESL trial ( CanTEST ) , and research workers referred to pupils ‘ two-semester class point norms ( GPAs ) for their academic success. Bayliss and Raymond ‘s findings show a correlativity between the reading and cloze trial tonss and the GPAs. Thus, the research workers concluded that overall ESL proficiency plays a function in academic success, particularly in a plan where reading and authorship accomplishments are outstanding.
A survey with similar consequences was conducted by Maleki and Zangani ( 2007 ) in the Persian context, where English is a foreign linguistic communication. They examined the relationship between English linguistic communication proficiency and the academic accomplishment of EFL pupils in Iran. When they looked at the correlativity between proficiency in English and pupil GPAs, they found a important connexion between the two variables. The research workers therefore concluded that “ success in finishing university appraisal undertakings may be related to proficiency in English, particularly for pupils analyzing in English ” ( p.92 ) .
Although research looking into the relationship between English linguistic communication proficiency and academic success seems to be done largely in third contexts, one survey reviewed in this article was carried out with secondary school pupils. Fakeye and Ogunsiji ( 2009 ) examined whether Nigerian secondary school pupils ‘ English proficiency degree predicted their academic accomplishment. The English Language Proficiency Test ( ELPT ) consequences of 400 senior high school pupils were correlated with their annual tonss in nucleus topics such as Math, Biology and English. The findings indicate that academic success additions as English proficiency degree does. From their findings, Fakeye and Ogunsiji come to the decision that proficiency in English can finally find academic accomplishment.
A survey conducted by Sahragard, Baharloo and Soozandehfar ( 2011 ) was similar to the 1 conducted by Maleki and Zangani ( 2007 ) in that it, excessively, was done in an Persian EFL context. The research included 151 English Literature pupils. Sahragard, Baharloo and Soozandehfar, excessively, aimed at happening out the relationship between linguistic communication proficiency and academic accomplishment. The research workers found consequences that show a important positive correlativity between pupils ‘ proficiency tonss and GPAs, which meant the more adept in English the pupils are the better they perform in their college classs.
Most late, Cho and Bridgeman ( 2012 ) conducted a large-scale survey in which academic records of 2594 undergraduate and graduate non-native English speech production pupils were used from 10 different universities across the U.S. Their survey used the TOEFL Internet-Based Test and measured the correlativity between TOEFL tonss and pupils ‘ GPAs. Although Cho and Bridgeman province that pupils with higher TOEFL IBT scores tended to hold higher GPAs, the prognostic cogency in footings of correlativity was non strong. The research workers still concluded that there might be a meaningful relationship between TOEFL IBT tonss and pupils ‘ GPA.
In the visible radiation of bing literature, this research intends to happen out whether there is a relationship between pupils ‘ linguistic communication proficiency ( as measured by their English linguistic communication proficiency exam tonss ) and academic success ( as measured by their first-semester GPAs ) in a private third establishment in Istanbul, Turkey, where the medium of direction is English. The pupils had studied two faculties ( 16 hebdomads ) of EFL classs at the intermediate and upper-intermediate degree before taking the proficiency test in January 2012 at the University English Preparatory School. Their Grade point average records constitute their first semester norms in the spring of 2012.
1.3 Research Question and Hypothesis
“ Is there a relationship between English linguistic communication proficiency and academic success? ” is the inquiry addressed in this survey. The intent is to happen out if there is a relationship between English linguistic communication proficiency test tonss and pupils ‘ subsequent ( first-semester ) academic accomplishment in their undergraduate grade plans. The void hypothesis set is “ There is no relationship between pupils ‘ English linguistic communication proficiency tonss and their first semester GPAs. ”
1.4 Boundary lines
In surveies similar to this one, there can be questionnaires given to or interviews held with a certain figure among the instances that the survey is carried out with. Although it was the purpose with this survey excessively, due to practical grounds ( i.e. the information obtained did non uncover the pupil IDs ) , the survey was done without questionnaires or interviews with pupils. Therefore, pupils ‘ sentiments on whether or non they think their proficiency in English is/has been an of import factor in their academic public presentation could non be included in this survey.
The informations obtained from the university included merely 45 eligible instances ( instances holding passed the most recent English proficiency test with first semester class point norms ) . Therefore, all of the eligible 45 instances were used in this survey without a sampling process.
The scene is an English-medium private university in Istanbul, offering 27 unmarried mans and 11 associate grade plans. There are besides a figure of alumnus grades offered. Instruction in a bulk of these plans is 100 % in English. Students take the in-house English linguistic communication proficiency test at the beginning of each academic twelvemonth in September, and whether they will go to the English preparatory school or get down their grade plans depends on the tonss they get on this proficiency test. They are required to acquire a minimal mark of 60 out of 100 to carry through the proficiency demand. They register the prep school if they get below 60 and analyze EFL classs for a twelvemonth or one semester ( depending on their proficiency degrees ) before they take the following proficiency test. Students can besides take TOEFL or IELTS at any clip in order to turn out their English linguistic communication proficiency.
The informations obtained for this research are the English linguistic communication proficiency test tonss and GPAs of 45 undergraduate pupils analyzing at the English-medium university in Istanbul. The pupils are immature grownups aged between 18 and 22. 25 of them are male and 20 are female. The modules they are enrolled at are Engineering and Natural Sciences, Economics, Administrative and Social Sciences, Communications and Law.
In this survey, English linguistic communication proficiency tonss are the 1s measured by the English proficiency test in January 2011, which was written and administered in-house by the trial office at the English preparative school of the university. Academic accomplishment is measured by pupils ‘ GPAs in the first semester of their undergraduate grade surveies ( spring, 2011 ) .
The proficiency exams administered at the establishment are designed to find pupils ‘ preparedness ( in footings of English proficiency ) to analyze in an English-medium university in Turkey. Therefore, their purpose is to measure whether or non pupils can follow talks, read academic texts and compose on academic subjects in their degree plans.
There were three constituents of the January 2011 English Proficiency Exam: Listening, reading, and composing. For the hearing undertaking, testees listened to a talk on an academic subject and took notes on the outline sheets provided. Upon completion of the hearing and note-taking, they were handed out inquiries on the talk. They were asked use their notes to reply the inquiries. Questions on the talk constituted 15 points of multiple pick, sentence completion, short reply and multiple matching types. The reading constituent involved two semi-authentic academic texts. Reading inquiries on the two texts constituted 30 points in sum of multiple pick, sentence completion, short reply and multiple matching types. In the last constituent of the test, pupils were expected to compose a well-developed sentiment essay of about 300 words in response to one of the two inquiries posed on academic subjects. The hearing and composing constituents were each out of 30 points, and the reading was out of 40 ( 20 each text ) . The entire continuance of the test was 180 proceedingss.
The most recent English proficiency exam consequences were the most convenient 1s to obtain for the research worker. At the clip of this research, the most recent proficiency test tonss eligible were from the January 2011 Proficiency Exam. There were 65 pupils who had passed ( gotten 60 or supra ) the proficiency test in inquiry, and 45 of them completed their first semesters after carry throughing this English linguistic communication demand. Therefore, there were GPA records of 45 pupils out of the 65. ( The other 15 had non started their grade plans right after go throughing the proficiency test, hence, did non hold a GPA record yet at the clip of this survey. ) The proficiency test tonss and GPAs of the full 45 eligible pupils were used to run a Pearson ‘s correlativity on SPSS.
In one of the surveies reviewed ( Kerstjen & A ; Nery, 2000 ) , although the prognostic consequence of academic public presentation from the IELTS tonss were “ small-to-medium ” , the findings turned out to be different when merely reading tonss were taken into history. A separate analysis for the reading tonss showed that the reading constituent of IELTS was a important forecaster of academic success. To see if a similar consequence would be observed in the present survey, apart from the correlativity analysis between the proficiency entire tonss and GPAs, the hearing, reading and composing tonss of the English proficiency test were correlated individually with the GPAs.
Pearson correlativity analysis of English linguistic communication proficiency exam entire tonss and GPAs of the 45 instances show no important correlativity, as can be seen in Table 1 below.
Table 1: Correlation Coefficient between GPAs and English Proficiency Scores
Grade point average
Grade point average
The correlativity coefficient being unusually distant from 1 ( 0.19 ) shows that there is non any important correlativity between the English proficiency tonss and GPAs. When the correlativity coefficient is squared ( 0.19 ) 2, the common discrepancy between the two steps is obtained ( 0.036 ) . The common discrepancy value 0.036 agencies that merely 3-4 % of the GPAs are predictable from the pupils ‘ English linguistic communication proficiency tonss. This may be sufficient to reason that there is about no predictability between these two steps. The sprinklings on the graph below besides reveal the deficiency ( or failing ) of correlativity between the GPAs and English proficiency tonss.
Graph 1: Scatter secret plan graph of GPAs and English Proficiency Scores of 45 pupils
The consequences of the Pearson correlativity analyses between the GPAs and the separate hearing, reading and composing tonss of the English proficiency test besides pointed to a deficiency of correlativity. Table 2 below shows the correlativity coefficients between the GPAs and the three constituents of the test.
Table 2: Correlation Coefficients between GPAs and Listening, Reading and Writing
Grade point average
Grade point average
As can be seen from Table 2 above, the correlativity coefficients are even good below 0.5. Common discrepancy values will be 0.003 for the hearing constituent, 0.014 for reading, and 0.063 for composing. This means that merely 6 % of the GPAs are predictable from the composing tonss of this test, which is the highest predictability among the three constituents.
4. Discussion and Decisions
The correlativity coefficient between the entire tonss and GPAs ( 0.19 ) obtained through Pearson ‘s Correlation analysis, and the common discrepancy value calculated ( 0.036 ) indicate that there is no or so really weak relationship between the English linguistic communication proficiency test tonss and pupils ‘ GPAs in the context where this survey was carried out. In other words, based on the consequences obtained through the correlativity analysis, the void hypothesis “ There is no relationship between the English proficiency tonss and pupils ‘ GPAs ” can non be rejected.
Pearson ‘s correlativity analysis of the GPAs with the separate hearing, reading and composing tonss on the English proficiency test did non bespeak any correlativity, either. If a correlativity between one of these tonss and the GPAs had been found, this could intend that pupils, at least in this third context, relied more on this particular accomplishment in their undergraduate surveies. This sort of an analysis into how much instruction in the undergraduate plans relies on which English linguistic communication accomplishment might hold potentially suggested revising the English homework school course of study harmonizing to the accomplishments demands of the pupils. However, since the analyses show no correlativity, such an application is non in inquiry. There seems to be no relationship between pupils ‘ academic success and their accomplishment in these three accomplishments based on the proficiency test tonss.
When looked at the sprinklings on Graph 1 on page 8, it can be noticed that the GPAs of the instances whose proficiency tonss were about 60, scope between good below 1 and good above 3. One reading of this can be that among the pupils who passed the proficiency with a minimal demand of 60, there are those who have been able to execute good in the first semester of their undergraduate grade plans. Therefore, it is possible to state that although it is an English-medium university, English linguistic communication proficiency may non be a important factor finding pupils ‘ academic success in this Turkish third context.
Another reading of this state of affairs revealed by Graph 1 could be that pupils may non hold intended or worked to acquire a high mark on the proficiency test in the first topographic point. That is, during the preparative twelvemonth, they may hold shown merely plenty attempt to go through the test with a minimal mark of 60 and non any more than that. However, in their undergrad plans, they may be demoing a much greater attempt, and obtaining better consequences than in their English homework plan. Therefore, their English proficiency tonss may non reflect their true potencies.
One concluding point I would wish to add is on the dependability and cogency of the English linguistic communication proficiency test mentioned in this survey. Most of the similar surveies reviewed have taken TOEFL or IELTS as the step of the English linguistic communication proficiency ( Hill et al. , 1999 ; Kerstjen and Nery, 2000 ; Feast, 2002 ; Cho and Bridgeman, 2012 ) . In this survey, English linguistic communication proficiency was measured by the proficiency test prepared and administered in-house by the academic staff of the university. While there may be advantages to utilizing this sort of a linguistic communication proficiency test ( for illustration, it relies less on multiple pick inquiries than standard trials do ) , a disadvantage for this survey was that unlike in the instance of TOEFL or IELTS, cogency and dependability steps of this peculiar English linguistic communication proficiency test were non accessible.
5. Suggestion for Further Research
Surveies looking into the relationship between English linguistic communication proficiency and academic success in English-medium universities in Turkey are non many. Due to practical restraints, the present survey was conducted with informations from merely 45 instances. In add-on, because the informations did non include pupil designation, no questionnaires could be handed out to any of the instances. Therefore, a larger scale research with questionnaires or student/lecturer interviews is needed in similar contexts ( province or private universities ) in Turkey.
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