Road Accident Essay

Abstraction

Background: Traffic accidents rank fifth among the taking cause of deceases in Malaysia. The state is burdened with more than ten billion ringgit of losingss due to traffic accidents every twelvemonth. Despite execution of assorted intercession steps over the old ages. the figure of traffic accidents continues to lift. For case. the figure of traffic accidents in the twelvemonth 2007 was about twice the figure of accidents recorded in 1997.

Aims: The purpose of this paper is to supply an initial apprehension of the clang exposure refering to the mobility degree in assorted provinces of Malaysia. It is of involvement to research the relationship of the exposure form and clang hazard before be aftering effectual countermeasures. Method: Traveling information based on mileometer reading was obtained through Postcard Survey. 40. 000 post cards were sent indiscriminately to new vehicle proprietors registered with the Road Transport Department. Consequences: A sum of 6. 681 automobilists responded to the study. From their mileometer readings. it was noted that males travelled 99. 06 billion kilometers while their female opposite numbers travelled merely 58. 69 billion kilometers. The consequences besides indicated that male drivers were about three times more at hazard of being involved in route accidents as compared to female drivers. Significance: The findings are really utile to the relevant governments as intercession countermeasures in relation to the different features and demographics of the provinces can be designed. The consequences besides serve as a mention point for province determination shapers to set their countermeasures for the improvement of route safety. Keywords: Exposure ; Survey ; Hazard

Introduction

Malaysia portions similar profiles of clang forms with other developing
states in the universe in the past decennary. The enormous addition of motorized vehicles on the roads has constantly led to important rise in the figure of traffic accidents. The figure of traffic accidents in 2007 about doubled occurred in 1997. as compared to the figure of traffic accidents that

Sixty per centum of entire human deaths reported over the old ages involved motorcyclists. This high accident rate has led to route accidents being the 5th prima cause of decease in Malaysia ( Department of Statistics. 2008 ) and caused 9. 3 billion ringgit of losingss to the state in the twelvemonth 2003 ( ADB-ASEAN. 2003 ) . In the list of universe rankings. Malaysia is graded 46th of 172 states with respects to happening of deceases in registered vehicles due to route accients ( WHO. 2009 ) . Figure 1 shows the rate of happening of accidents between 2001 and 2010.

Figure 1 Accident Records from 2001 to 2010

Many route safety surveies have led to the convergence that a step of hazard exposure is of import for a comprehensive analysis of causal factors ( Joly et al. . 1993 ) . By definition. “exposure to risk” means the exposure of a driver or a system that may take to an accident ( Chapman. 1973 ) .

Factors of exposure can be the milage driven. the figure of trips. the figure of registered vehicles. fuel ingestion or the figure of driver hours. Hazard on the other manus. is the ratio of accidents over the exposure parametric quantities.

Exposure analysis has been widely used to explicate the fluctuation or to rationalize how a certain group or individual may be exposed to a higher hazard of accidents than others. One of the the more common parametric quantities is the figure of kilometers travelled ( KT ) . People argue that the hazard of accidents rises with the sum of travelperformed. Surveies by Janke ( 1991 ) and Maycock ( 1997 ) showed that while distance driven increased linearly with the hazard of route accidents. it was non the instance for those drivers who clocked lower milage. Drivers who drove shorter distances but who travelled on busy roads
even at lower velocities were exposed to merely every bit many traffic struggles which could accordingly increase their hazard of accidents. Chu ( 2003 ) in his survey concludes that simply comparing the hazard of accidents with exposure to driving over long distances can be over or under stand foring when the differences in travel velocity and environmental factors were non taken in consideration. Therefore. there are many other act uponing factors. but vehicle kilometer travelled ( VKT ) . an index associating to the figure of vehicles and entire distance travelled. is one of the taking factors act uponing the route safety public presentation within Malaysia or neighbouring parts.

The purpose of this paper is to supply an initial apprehension of the clang exposure refering to the mobility degree in the assorted provinces of Malaysia. It is of involvement to research the relationship of the exposure forms and clang hazards before be aftering effectual countermeasures.

Methodology

In Malaysia. the figure of accidents and deceases in 2007 was extracted from the MIROS Road Accident Analysis and Database System ( M-ROADS ) which was compiled from the original informations kept by the Royal Police of Malaysia ( RPM ) . The information sing the registered vehicles and automobilists in Malaysia were obtained from the Road Transportation Department Malaysia ( RTD ) . The Population information for each province in Malaysia was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. All the secondary informations were so used to gauge the decease per 100. 000 populations and decease per 10. 000 vehicles.

Information on travel based on odometer readings was obtained from the Postcard Survey conducted in 2007 and has been reported elsewhere ( Nurulhuda. 2010 ) but briefly described as follows:

The sampling in this survey is random trying. stratified by type of registered vehicle within the provinces of Malaysia. Forty 1000 post cards were sent to new vehicle proprietors and 6681 respondents completed the questionnaire.

The Postcard Survey had 4 inquiries: intent of travel. income. mileometer reading and day of the month mileometer reading was taken. The personal information of the driver ( age. gender. etc. ) and vehicle information ( type of vehicle. engine size. etc. ) was obtain from the JPJ Database. Figure 2 shows a sample of the filled Postcard returned to the research worker. Estimates of Average Annual Kilometers Travelled ( AAKT ) were classified by province and type of vehicle.

Figure 2 Example of Postcard Survey returned

Consequence

Table 1 shows the figure of human deaths by province in Malaysia and its associated human death rate. A sum of 6282 people were killed in route accidents in the twelvemonth 2007. Selangor and Johor recorded the highest figure of human deaths with 16 % each. Perlis reported the least figure of human deaths with 41 deceases.

Table 1: Fatalities and Death among vehicles registered with RTD in twelvemonth 2007 State Perlis Kedah Pulau Pinang Perak Selangor WP KL Negeri Sembilan Melaka Johor Pahang Terengganu Kelantan Sabah Sarawak TOTAL Fatalities 41 492 376 811 1025 234 320 227 1023 437 374 290 316 316 6282 Death per 100. 000 population 17. 7 25. 6 24. 8 35. 0 20. 7 14. 6 32. 7 30. 7 31. 6 29. 5 35. 0 18. 6 10. 3 13. 1 22. 8 Death per 10. 000 vehicles registered 6. 20 5. 84 2. 10 5. 21 5. 24 0. 62 4. 74 3. 98 4. 39 6. 54 10. 10 5. 47 4. 70 3. 04 3. 73

When the population and figure of new vehicles registered were considered. the consequences show that the highest human death rate per 100. 000 population was reported in Perak and Terengganu. with both entering 35. 0 deceases per 100. 000 population. Sabah ranked 9th among the provinces. with 4. 7 deceases per every 10. 000 vehicles registered. It is interesting to observe here that the usage of a different denominator outputs a different position of route safety.

The comparing of exposure to hazard of accidents besides took into history the sum of motor traffic. land usage and associated traffic conditions in each province. ( IRTAD. 2010 ) . On the other manus. in the twelvemonth 2007. for every 10. 000
vehicles registered in Terengganu there were 10. 1 human deaths reported. The greater hazard of route accidents among route users in Terengganu requires serious attending from the relevant parties.

Table 2 shows the entire population. registered figure of vehicles. accident informations. vehicle kilometers travelled ( VKT ) by province in Malaya for twelvemonth 2007. Al-Haji ( 2005 ) . defines the population size. figure of vehicles. and VKT as indexs of exposure to hazard of accidents. VKT is a more accurate exposure step than population or figure of vehicles because it is besides linkd to the differences in socio-economic conditions in each province.

Autos countrywide clocked 247. 045 kilometer in the twelvemonth 2007. while bikes clocked 25 per centum less in vehicle kilometers travelled. Selangor reported the highest AAKT for bikes while Negeri Sembilan had the highest record of AAKT for autos.

Table 2: Entire population. figure of registered vehicles. and Accident informations by State for twelvemonth 2007 Population ( ‘000 ) 231. 9 1918. 7 1518. 5 2314. 6 4961. 6 1604. 4 978. 2 738. 8 3. 240. 9 1483. 6 1067. 9 1560. 5 3063. 6 2404. 2 27087. 4 Registered Vehicles Motorcars 13. 502 212. 866 728. 493 510. 013 869. 169 2. 271. 722 236. 300 218. 568 953. 439 247. 491 123. 193 182. 768 379. 878 472. 241 7. 419. 643 Motorcycles 49. 225 572. 614 979. 853 948. 255 886. 970 1. 108. 324 389. 453 320. 657 1. 205. 058 368. 294 220. 222 312. 293 134. 129 448. 017 7. 943. 364 Accidents AAKT Motorcars 15008 17661 15857 18144 19135 19228 21322 18924 17003 18033 19344 16524 14938 15926 247045 Motorcycles 11626 14323 14234 12902 15637 14066 13924 12957 13798 13196 12989 12074 12340 10469 184534 Autos ( In Billion ) 202. 634. 047 3. 759. 459. 781 11. 551. 861. 268 9. 253. 639. 738 16. 631. 402. 097 43. 681. 185. 702 5. 038. 475. 520 4. 136. 232. 397 16. 211. 145. 110 4. 462. 690. 665 2. 382. 994. 003 3. 019. 990. 257 5. 674. 458. 001 7. 520. 858. 755 VKT Motorcycles ( In Billion ) 572. 271. 266 8. 201. 469. 535 13. 946. 948. 551 12. 234. 471. 808 13. 869. 290. 422 15. 589. 979. 983 5. 422. 705. 095 4. 154. 713. 743 16. 627. 083. 780 4. 860. 167. 228 2. 860. 469. 727 3. 770. 619. 900 1. 655. 096. 320 4. 690. 149. 830

State

Perlis Kedah Pulau Pinang Perak Selangor WP KL Negeri Sembilan Melaka Johor Pahang Terengganu Kelantan Sabah Sarawak TOTAL

1. 364 16. 172 33. 881 29. 203 99. 157 49. 454 16. 079 11. 720 46. 584 13. 982 8. 155 8. 116 15. 196 14. 256 363. 319

133. 527. 027. 342 108. 455. 437. 190

As of twelvemonth 2007. there were 6. 2 million active male drivers and 3. 8 million active female drivers registered with RTD ( see Table 3 ) . “Active drivers” here refers to those with valid footings of licence during the class of this study. Based on Table 3. it was noted that on norm there is non much difference between female and male drivers in their one-year mean distance travelled. In footings of VKT. female drivers recorded 58. 69 billion vehicle kilometers travelled. which was 40 % lower as compared to their male opposite numbers. Translating the deceases recorded into VKT. it was estimated that male drivers were about 3 times more at hazard than female drivers.

Table 3: Clang rate ( human death ) and exposure informations disaggregated by gender Active Drivers 6. 168. 238 3. 804. 872 Driver km ( billion ) 99. 06 58. 69 Risk ( per billion driver kilometer ) 53. 1 17. 5

Gender

AAKT

Fatalities

Male Female

16. 059. 80 15. 425. 35

5. 258 1. 024

Further analysis on the hazard of motorcyclists being involved in a traffic accident was besides conducted to look into the safety public presentation of motorcyclists as compared to drivers of autos in Malaysia.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The aim of this paper is to cast some visible radiation on route safety public presentation in the state. The consequences showed that the absolute figure of accidents required exposure informations to measure the route safety public presentation. For case. the human deaths records in Terengganu were 374 deceases but when the population and figure of vehicles registered were considered. the hazards tended to increase.

The kilometers travelled is the estimation of exposure identified in the survey and obtained from odometer study via post card method. It should be noted that it was based on representative sample and influenced by certain grade of prejudice.

The consequences in this paper are non free from restriction and statement. The information presented in this survey can be classified into two classs: primary informations and secondary informations. The primary informations were gathered from the interview study where the initial marks were motorcyclists and auto drivers. The determination to concentrate on these two groups was due to the fact that they were overrepresented either in the accident informations or the vehicle population. However. jobs were encountered during the extrapolation of secondary informations sourced from RTD and the traffic constabulary database.

The writers acknowledge their defects. while due attempt was put into polishing the findings. Therefore. the tradeoff in the profusion of informations should be interpreted with attention. At this phase. it does non to the full depict the image of exposure and hazard forms of the population in the state. Nevertheless. the writers believed that this paper has introduced the exposure and hazard elements in explicating route safety from another position.

Mention

[ 1 ] Department of Statistics Malaysia. Sebab Kematian Utama Malaysia. Statistik Perangkaan 2008. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad. 2008. [ 2 ] G. Maycock. Accident liability – the human position. Traffic and Transport Psychology. Theory and Application. pp. 65 – 76. Dutch capital: Pergamon. 1997. [ 3 ] Hutchinson. T. P. . Wundersitz. L. N. . Anderson. R. W. G. and Kloeden. C. N. . ( 2009 ) . Exposure to put on the line on the roads. Australasian Road Safety Research. Policing and Education Conference. Sydney pp. 190-200. November. 2009. [ 4 ] International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group ( IRTAD ) . Road Safety 2010 Annual Report. Paris. 2010. [ 5 ] K. K. C. Mani. M. F. M. Yusuff. R. Umar. The Cost of Road Traffic Accident in Malaysia. ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program. Accident Costing Report: AC5. 2003. [ 6 ] M. K. Janke. Accidents. milage and the hyperbole of hazard. Accident Anlaysis and Prevention. Vol. 23. No. 2/3. pp. 183 – 188. 1991. [ 7 ] J. Nurulhuda and M. M Jamilah. Development of Exposure Indices for Different Types of Vehicle in Malaysia. MIROS Road Safety Conference 2010. Kuala Lumpur. pp. 108-116. December. 2010 [ 8 ] Road Transport Department Malaysia. Report of Registered Vehicles by Type of Vehicle in Malaysia. 2007. [ 9 ] Royal Malaysia Police. Road Accident Statistics Malaysia 2007. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad. Kuala Lumpur. 2007. [ 10 ] World Health Organization ( WHO ) . Global Status Report on Road Safety. 2009. [ 11 ] X. Chu. The human death hazard of walking in America: A time-based comparative attack. In Walk21 Conference: Health equity and the environment. Portland. 2003.