Problems Being Faced By Easyjet Economics Essay
A remark on jobs being faced by EasyJet and rating of schemes adopted by EasyJet
EasyJet, a British air hose company which has been fund in 1995 by Stelios Haji-Ioannou with 2 Boeing aeroplanes and 2 mobs, has now expand to European market with 189 aeroplanes and more so 400 paths ( Suit 101, 2009 ) . Nowadays, EasyJet along with its good known low cost scheme is dwelling on capturing larger market portion. However, there has generated two chief struggles inside the house. First, Stelios as the biggest stockholder against directors ‘ hereafter growing program of buying more aircrafts. Second, Stelios insist that stockholder of EasyJet should be paid by dividend.
In order to analyze the current issues of EasyJet, this study will analysis issues associate to EasyJet in facet of economic sciences and finance. In the economic sciences subdivision, this study will foremost discourse concern aims of EasyJet while focal point on growing as its chief aim. After that, the study will look into the separation theory of ownership and command issues and use it into the treatment of current jobs exist between stockholders and directors. Third, this study will depict the market construction of British air hose industry and discourse whether the low cost scheme could suit the market. In the finance subdivision, this study will foremost analyze the contemplation of scheme adopted by EasyJet on the histories utilizing ratio analysis and tendency inspecting. Then it will travel on to a comparing among EasyJet, Jet2 and Ryanair, and research the investing hazard of EasyJet. Finally, this study will do a decision every bit good as recommendations that may likely work out the jobs exist in EasyJet.
Part A. Economicss
A.1 Business Aims
Harmonizing to Neild and Carysforth ( 2004, p.47 ) , ‘Business aims are marks which must be achieved for an purpose to be met ‘ . Schemes or programs adopted by houses are frequently based on marks such as net income, gross revenues and growing.
Growth as the major aim of EasyJet, it is comparatively easy to accomplish during recession every bit good as recovery period. Growth of a company is regarded as expand size and enlarge gross revenues. It is based on the scarification of short-run net income in favour of long-run net income. For illustration, EasyJet usage retained net incomes to force fleet growing. As a consequence, stockholders are non satisfied without dividends. In order to equilibrate involvements of both sides, directors have to increase the short net income through enlarge gross revenues. Furthermore, as directors are accountants of the company, they are free to take growing as aim to carry through their involvements such as ‘bonuses and portion options based on geting a big volume of concern ‘ ( Stokes, 2010, p.477 ) .
A.1.1.1 Growth Strategy
EasyJet adopts several schemes such as advertisement and variegation to excite growing and enlarge market. Based on EasyJet ‘s dramatic investing programmes such as addition fleet size, EasyJet experienced a high rate growing of gross even during the recession periods from ?264 million to ?2667 million. It increased about 10 times severally and from 2000 to 2009 ( EasyJet, 2009 ) . However, certain growing schemes may ensue in lifting outgo and cut downing monetary value.
Increase promotional outgo
While EasyJet already has a entire figure of 189 airbus A320 and Boeing 737 aircraft in 2010, it is respected to get another 59 planes in the following 4 old ages in favour of accommodating increasing figure of riders and assorted finishs ( Flightglobal, 2010 ) . However, in order to acquire ‘good gross public presentation ‘ , ?86 million is spent on fuel costs in 2009 which partially lead to a decrease in net income border ( EasyJet, 2009 ) .
Decrease monetary value
In order to portion larger market and advance growing, EasyJet carries out a scheme to do their travel fees every bit good as cost base lower than other established bearers. Since 1999, EasyJet has been voted as the ‘Best Low Cost Airline ‘ by Business traveler Magazine and recognized as the first European bearer that won the award for ‘Best Low Cost Carrier ‘ at OAG Airline Industry Awards in 2008 ( EasyJet ) .
A.1.2 Other Business Aims
Gross saless Revenue Maximizing
Gross saless gross maximizing is achieved by increasing merchandises and cut downing monetary value. Higher gross revenues could expeditiously assist to spread out and vie for the market. In add-on, purpose to maximise sale gross could besides profit directors by heightening their credibleness every bit good as rewards ( Jain & A ; Khanna, 2009, p.22 ) . EasyJet purchase more aeroplanes, provide assorted domestic and international flights and adopts low cost scheme to pull more riders. Harmonizing to EasyJet ( 2009 ) , entire gross per place has increased 10.9 % with entire gross increased 12 % from 2008 to 2009.
Net income Maximizing
Net income is considered as the strongest motive of the company. Maximizing net income sometimes means maximising the value of stockholders ‘ wealth when cyberspace hard currency flows back to the company in the long tally. However, fixed cost may increase in a short term to advance end product ( Dransfield, 2004, p. 215 ) .
In future development, the aim that EasyJet might follow is net income maximizing. Nowadays net income borders are spend on aircraft purchase to run into the demands of rider and gaining control larger market portion, these will return to ‘positive hard currency coevals beyond the period of higher than normal capital outgo ‘ ( EasyJet, 2009 ) .
Managerial Utility Maximizing
It is known that managerial public-service corporation could maximise when there is a higher degree of end product. The instance indicates that EasyJet has ordered more aeroplanes to function more riders and research new market. By increasing gross revenues and net income, directors could supply adequate money to do stockholders happy. Meanwhile, excess money could be used to advance salary, fillips and many other fringe benefits every bit good as develop discretional undertakings ( Stoke, 2010, p.470 ) .
A.2 Ownership and Control Issues
A.2.1 Ownership of EasyJet
EasyJet is owned by stockholders who ‘invest money for future dividends and for the potency increased value of their portions ‘ . Stockholders have been seen as the proctor of the operation and direction of a company. Due to their involvements on investing returns, they may indirectly act upon company to increase portion value or maximise net income ( Turner, n.d. ) .
On the other manus, stockholders could sale their stocks to show their dissatisfaction on the operation of the company. However, this behavior may take to a decrease on portion monetary value and increase the hazard of ‘take-over command by plunderer ‘ ( Stokes, 2010, p. 478 ) .
Stelios Hajiloannous owns 38 % stocks of the company, followed by Standard Life, who is the 2nd big stockholder, owns 9.45 % stocks ( London Night Standard, 2010 ) . Due to the household of Sir Stelios is the biggest stockholder, he could possible exert an effectual influence on the company, and directs the determinations made by managers and directors correspond to stockholders ‘ involvements.
A.2.2 Ownership Issues
The biggest stockholder every bit good as Non-Executive Director, Stelios has been strongly opposed to EasyJet ‘s rapid enlargement scheme and direction scheme.
Stockholders are more concern net income maximising instead than sale gross maximising. Stelios claims that the capital cost and net income is no longer balanced and the outgo for new air hoses are from the disbursal of net income borders. Stelios insists that about 190 aircrafts is adequate to operation and other extra 1s should be sold to conserve hard currency ( Flightglobal, 2010 ) . The fleet growing scheme is non suited for recession period as there are ‘poor economic returns and market alterations ‘ .
Sometimes non executive manager has deficient influence on the Board. As a consequence, Stelios tries to carry other stockholders to reject the growing scheme. However, Stelios failed to derive adequate support to exercise power on directors. Standard Life, who is the 2nd big stockholder, expressed his satisfaction with direction squad ( London Night Standard, 2010 ) .
Stockholders have the right to profit from the company. Harmonizing to the instance ( 2010 ) , Stelios argues that the house is a mature company that the portion monetary value bash non has the capacity to increase. Thus Stelios claims that stockholders should have wages from dividend payments alternatively of the portion monetary value of the stocks they hold. Huge capital outgo should be limited while hard currency should be conserved.
Stelios quitted the Board to against growing scheme. There generates another debate about the trade name licence. The ‘Easy ‘ trade name belongs to Stelios ‘ Easy Group and was licensed to EasyJet. However, he now is concerns to repossess the trade name and licence to another air hose ( Daily Mail, 2010 ) .
A.2.3 Control by Directors
EasyJet is controlled by directors. Although stockholders own the company, they left the operation and administration power to the Boards and direction. There are two sorts of executive in the board: non-executive manager who strictly give advice and executive manager who truly exert power to do determination. The determination made by executive manager and directors should be based on the involvements of stakeholders to a certain grade. Therefore, directors can be viewed as the agents of stockholders ( Stocks, 2010, p. 477 ) .
On the other manus, directors have their duties be loyal to the company while exercising judgement to run the company. Directors should be informed the concern environment to do determination that benefits the company. Wagess such as fillips are the motives of directors. However, it may besides be the stimulation of hazardous policy devising ( Bevans, 2007, p. 220 ) .
It is known that appropriate corporate administration is the counsel to accomplish success operation of the company. It requires greater disposal directors. However, it is hard to equilibrate different involvements between stockholders and directors, therefore lead to several jobs ( Rees & A ; Sheikh, 1995, p.145 ) .
A.2.4 Control Issues
With the purpose of growing, EasyJet sets the end to keep a growing of 7.5 % and increase its European market portion from about 7 % to 10 % . EasyJet believes that its growing program on fleet size could lend to busy larger short-haul European market ( Flightglobal, 2010 ) .
EasyJet indicates that they earned a net income of ? 4 million and performed good in the recession period, the enlargement program is under control alternatively of taking immense risky ( London Evening Standard, 2010 ) .
Andy Harrison ‘s main executive place was taken topographic point by McCall due to the dissension with Sir Stelios ( New Statesman, 2010 ) .
Although there is a 5 % bead of portion monetary value due to the long conflict between stockholders and directors, EasyJet claims that overall there was a 34 % rise of the portion monetary value in 10 old ages which shown a singular potency among European air hose bearers every bit good as a sufficient wages to stockholders ( Independent, 2010 ) .
A.3 Market Structure
A.3.1 Market Structure of British Airline Industry
Harmonizing to Moschandreas ( 2000, p.10 ) , market construction is the features of the market that could hold impact on the manner of competition. Those features include merchandise variegation, barriers of entry the market, figure of providers and the degree of monetary value control.
The market construction of British air hose industry is oligopoly. Oligopoly is an ‘imperfect market with standardised or differentiated merchandises and a high grade of mutuality ‘ which dominated by a few companies ( Chauhan, 2009, p.65 ) .
A.3.1.1 The Characteristics of Oligopoly
The market is dominated by few companies. Figure 1 shows the market portion in the UK chief airdrome London Heathrow. British Airways, BMI and Virgin Atlantic have comparative higher market portions than others.
Figure 1. Top Airlines ‘ market portion at London Heathrow.
AnnaAero. ( 2008 ) . [ One line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.anna.aero/2008/12/05/flybe-heading-for-no-1-in-uk-domestic-market/ [ Accessed 05th December 2008 ]
Many companies in oligopoly market established trade names and offer assorted merchandises ( Jain & A ; Khanna, 2009, p.115 ) . For illustration, British Air passages with the motto ‘The universe ‘s Best Airline ‘ serves more than 300 finishs by 238 aircrafts ( British Airways, 2009 ) ; BMI with the slogan ‘Better for Business ‘ serves assorted finishs by 43 aircrafts ( BMI, 2010 ) .
There are several barriers that protect officeholders from new houses. First, due to variegation of the merchandises, established companies could consolidate market by branding and publicity. As a consequence, new houses have to pass more money on advertisement and stigmatization to suppress client trueness to incumbent companies and attract riders. Second, fiscal demands or critical resource besides restrict new entrants, such as trouble in accessing available landing airdromes and immense cost of buying aircraft ( Tucker, 2008, p.178 )
A.3.1.2 Common Strategies of Oligopoly
There are several monetary value schemes or non-price schemes which could be used in oligopoly market.
A.220.127.116.11 Price Strategy ( Stokes, 2010, p.148 )
If one house increases the monetary value of the merchandise, it may still attractive to clients. This may because of the publicity of quality and service or conspicuous ingestion behaviour.
Price favoritism. Charging different monetary value in different market could assist to increase gross. There are three grade of monetary value favoritism ( Dwivedi, 2008, p.328 ) :
First degree favoritism issues when Sellerss charge the highest monetary value of the merchandise that client willing to purchase. For illustration, BA offer free drinks and bites, they could bear down a higher monetary value comparison to EasyJet, who do non offer free air hose catering.
Second degree monetary value favoritism exits when Sellerss ‘charge different monetary values for the different measures of purchase ‘ or ‘different class of consumers ‘ ( p.328 ) . Such as ‘first-class ‘ and ‘economy category ‘ charge otherwise in air hose industry as economic system category is frequent required by riders.
Third degree monetary value favoritism occurs when different monetary value are charged refer to different submarket. For illustration, air hose companies may offer price reductions harmonizing to the clip that clients book ticket in progress.
Limit pricing occurs when houses pricing merchandises lower but still can acquire net income. Such scheme could assist to discourage rivals or new entrants.
Price snap of demand.
When demand is inelastic, increase monetary value could ensue in gross addition. On the other manus, when demand is elastic, decrease monetary value could besides ensue in gross addition.
A.18.104.22.168 Non-Price Strategy
Non-Price Schemes in oligopolistic markets could assist to ‘increase demand and develop trueness among consumers ‘ ( Riley, 2005, p.83 )
Expanding into new markets
Develop new markets could assist to enlarge web and strengthen market power every bit good as addition gross revenues. For illustration, late EasyJet has lunched new path from Edinburgh to Dortmund, which is expected to transport more than 55000 riders during the first twelvemonth ( EasyJet, 2010 ) .
Diversification of the merchandise
A company could be benefit from the diverseness of its merchandise against challengers. The more distinguishable merchandises they sale, the smaller their challengers could busy the market ( Mukherjee, p.460 ) . For illustration, EasyJet offer 422 flight paths among 27 states and 114 airdromes ( EasyJet, 2009 ) .
Ad and Branding
Ad and Branding are indispensable particularly for the new entrant. Ad could set up trade name images to clients. For illustration, EasyJet use orange as its chief colourss and permitted ITV runing a world show named ‘Airline ‘ that present EasyJet plane in the air to increasing its popularity ( Fastcompany, 2002 ) . EasyJet used to publicize its low monetary value flight and claims that people could “ wing to Scotland for the monetary value of a brace of denims ” ( Fastcompany, 2002 )
A.3.2 Low Cost Carriers ‘ Strategy of EasyJet
EasyJet adopts a low-priced theoretical account to pull riders and prehend larger market portion ( Dunmore & A ; Gleave, 2003 )
Offer inexpensive menus: EasyJet sale tickets through cyberspace or phone in order to avoid committees. By the terminal of 2005, 98 % of tickets were sold online ( EasyJet, 2005 ) . Customers could book in progress for inexpensive seats and transform flight for different clip agenda without excess charge.
Do non offer air hose catering.
Uniform aeroplane types: Airbus A320 and Boeing 737.
Have higher aircraft use: EasyJet aircrafts operate 11 hours a twenty-four hours which more than 3 hours than BA.
Use high seating denseness aeroplane and increase burden factors to cut down cost base: By the terminal of June 2010, the burden factor has increased to 87.2 % , therefore reduces per place costs by 16 % compared to BMI ( EasyJet, 2010 )
Use smaller airdromes to cut down charges: Such as London Luton and Liverpool
A.3.3 Low Cost Strategy in Oligopoly Market
In the UK oligopolistic market, as oligopolists are mutualist among others, houses are sensitive to rivals ‘ actions. A rational company may seek to theorize reactions of rivals ‘ utilizing game theory before they adopt assorted schemes such as monetary value alterations. However, even one company cut down its monetary value, it is improbable lead to a monetary value war or important net income alterations. Harmonizing to the theory, when companies change monetary values, their rivals will set schemes such as advertisement to avoid loss ( Stokes, 2010, p.152-156 ) . As a consequence, low cost scheme which aims to enlarge market by cut downing monetary value is non typical in oligopoly market.
However, due to the construct of ‘price snap of demand ‘ , cut down monetary value may take to the addition of demand. Lower monetary value scheme combined with higher frequences could pull more concern riders who account for a singular proportion of riders for EasyJet. Although such scheme could do overall cost well lower, it still enjoys an mean growing of 4.4 % while 10.5 % in some major mobs when fist became a low cost bearer. Apparently the successful low cost air hoses are more profitable than established bearers, therefore easy to last in the market ( EasyJet, 2009 ) .
In the first portion, this study has discussed the characteristics of growing scheme and low cost scheme adopted by EasyJet. The following portion of the study will analyze these characteristics by analyzing the fiscal histories of EasyJet.
Part B. Finance
B.1 Strategies reflect on EasyJet ‘s Histories
B.1.1.1 A Growth Company
From Figure B1, it can be seen that gross revenues gross has shown a systematically upward tendency and about doubled from ?1341.4 million to ?2666.8 million during the 5 old ages. Hence, harmonizing to merchandise life rhythm, EasyJet still being in the period of introduce to the market alternatively of adulthood.
Figure B2 shows a important addition in trade creditors and debitors. However, it can be seen in Figure B2 ‘ that EasyJet could pay providers more easy while receive debitor quicker than earlier. As a consequence, working capital every bit good as fiscal environment may likely acquire better, which could profit for its growing schemes.
Trade Creditors ( ?m )
Cost of Gross saless ( ?m )
Trade Debtors ( ?m )
* All beginnings from EasyJet one-year study from 2005 to 2009. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //corporate.easyjet.com/investors.aspx
Figure B2 ‘
It can be seen from Figure B3 that the market value per portion has increased from 2005 to 2007 before it cut down aggressively in 2008. However, it has retrieving in 2009 after the recession period. The overall tendency shows a growing in stockholders wealth every bit good as the company itself.
Phosphorus: Tocopherol ratio is the index of investors ‘ wants for long term net income. It reduced from 2005 to 2007 followed by an addition since 2008. The upward tendency could uncover a immense possible growing in the hereafter.
Market value per portion ( Pence )
Gaining per portion ( Pence )
Figure B3 ‘
Firgue B4 ‘
B 1.1.2 Growth Schemes
Increase promotional outgo
Figure B5 illustrates a growing of current assets and current liabilities. Current ratio of EasyJet reflects that the growing rate of current assets is easy than current liabilities, which could reflect EasyJet ‘s fast growing of adoptions for addition promotional outgo, as current ratio shows a downward tendency. However, the ratio is fluctuating above 1, which means that current assets ever more than current liabilities and EasyJet has the ability to pay future measures. However, the more the ratio near 1, the less hard currency or hard currency assets could be contributed to short term debt. A big sum of hard currency of EasyJet is used to pay for aircraft order for future long term net income.
Interest screen ratio could uncover whether EasyJet wage involvement adoptions by bring forthing adequate net incomes. However, from Figure B5 ‘ , EasyJet experienced a dramatic diminution on involvement screen ratio and lower than 1.5 in 2009. Due to the forfeit on short term net income and big sum of borrowing for air hose purchase, EasyJet may burdened by involvement of debt.
Operating Net income ( ?m )
Interest Payable ( ?m )
Interest Cover Ratio
Current Assets ( ?m )
Current Liabilities ( ?m )
Figure B5 ‘
Gearing ratio could be used to depict the proportion of long term liabilities in capital employed. The higher a geartrain ratio is, the more debt a company loaned and the more hazard a company may take. From Figure B6 ‘ 1 could cognize that overall the geartrain ratio has increased with a extremum in 2007. Due to the immense cost of aircrafts, EasyJet is now in serious fiscal job.
Non-current liabilities ( ?m )
Stockholders ‘ financess ( ?m )
Figure B6 ‘
Decrease in short term net income
Gross net income and net net income border ratio is helpful to cognize the per centum of net income generated from entire gross. Profit border of EasyJet has shown an upward tendency until 2007, both gross net income and net net income border ratio decreased approximately 10 % by the terminal of 2009. Such decrease indicates a addition in cost of gross revenues and may non be satisfied by stockholders. However, despite of the lifting in revenue enhancement rate, this tendency could reflect EasyJet ‘s schemes to research new market, increase net work every bit good as path length which lead to a rise of fuel costs, airdrome charging and advertisement costs.
Gross Profit ( ?m )
Gross saless Revenue ( ?m )
EBIT ( ?m )
Gross Profit Margin
Net Net income Margin
Figure B7 ‘
Capital employed includes stockholders ‘ financess and long term liabilities. Figure B8 indicates that EasyJet ‘s capital is lifting, which indicates an enlargement of EasyJet ‘s size. Although the investing of EasyJet has been increasing, net income has been used for farther enlargement. Hence, big short term net income may non be generated from capital. The state of affairs is reflected on the decrease on ROCE.
It besides can be seen from Figure B8, return on equity has shown the same tendency as that of net income. They both have increased boulder clay 2007 and so decreased aggressively. Although the decrease of return on equity may due to the revenue enhancement policy released in 2009 and increasing costs, which lead to a decrease on net incomes after revenue enhancement, it besides partially result in the enlargement of stockholders ‘ financess ( EasyJet, 2009 ) . However, overall it shows a deficiency of ability to return net income for proprietors ‘ investing.
EBIT ( ?m )
Capital Employed ( ?m )
Tax return on Equity
Figure B8 ‘
Figure B9 ‘ shows that after 2005, assets turnover decreased and has been fluctuating about 1, which reflects a hapless use of assets and less net income return on assets. However, this chiefly because of the big majority of airplane purchase program during the following few old ages. As a consequence, the long term benefits may non be reflected in more than one twelvemonth.
Gross saless Revenue ( ?m )
Entire Assets Less Current Liabilities ( ?m )
Figure B9 ‘
B.1.2 Low Cost scheme
Figure B10 shows increase both in gross revenues gross and figure of employee, which indicates the enlargement of company ‘s size and growing of finance public presentation. This may likely establish on the low cost scheme.
Harmonizing to low cost scheme, EasyJet offer more frequences on flight and larger capacities than other companies, therefore lead to an addition in rider flown every bit good as efficiency in aeroplane public-service corporations. Aiming to enlarge its market, EasyJet has lunched more airdromes and increase its path length to assorted European finishs which result in a rise in cost, particularly fuel cost. As a consequence, it can be seen from Figure B11 ‘ that a crisp rise of cost per rider has increased since 2007.
Gross saless Revenue ( ?m )
Number of Employee
Gross saless gross per employee ( ?m )
Figure B10 ‘
Cost of Gross saless ( ?m )
Passengers Flown ( m )
Cost per rider ( ? )
Figure B11 ‘
B.2 Compare EasyJet with Jet2 and Ryanair
In order to discourse investing risky of EasyJet, this portion of the study will compare EasyJet with Jet2 and Ryanair, both of which besides adopt low cost scheme as EasyJet.
B.2.1 Differences and Similarities in Balance Sheets
Apparently from Appendix 1, Appendix 2 ad Appendix 3, EasyJet shows a important higher addition rate of entire assets, liabilities and capital employed, which indicate a rapid enlargement of company ‘s size. Ryanair besides shows a somewhat development of the company. By contrast, although Jet2 experienced an addition in entire assets, the entire liabilities has reduced, chiefly due to the diminution of non-current assets.
Although the current assets of Jet2 raised aggressively from 2008 to 2009, harmonizing to Figure 15, unlike Ryanair and EasyJet, the current assets of Jet2 is much lower than current liabilities. Therefore Jet2 may non hold the ability to pay measures or have adequate hard currency to develop concern.
By comparing the proportion of entire liabilities and stockholder ‘s fund in entire assets, it can be seen that all three companies ‘ liabilities is higher than stockholders ‘ financess. Therefore, EasyJet, Jet2 and Ryanair are chiefly financed by debt.
As Ryanair has the largest figure of assets while Jet2 has the lowest, one may assume that Ryanair has the largest size of company while Jet2 has the comparatively smallest.
While the major liabilities of both EasyJet and Ryanair is long term adoptions, Jet2 takes trade payable as major entire liabilities and deferred revenue enhancement as major non-current liabilities. This state of affairs may likely bespeak that the on the job capital of Jet2 could be influenced negatively due to a hapless ability of paying debt.
B.2.2.1 Comparison among EasyJet, Jet2 and Ryanair
By comparing current ratio in Figure 12, it can be see that Jet2 ‘ current liabilities is more than current assets, therefore Jet2 may hold trouble to pay measures instantly. On the other manus, Ryanair ‘s current ratio has increased to 1.84 in 2009, as current assets in much higher than current liabilities. The figure may bespeak a hapless use of resource. Compared to Jet2 and Ryanair, EasyJet has a better direction on assets and liabilities.
It can be seen that EasyJet has the highest rate of pitching ratio, as the operation of company is mostly depend on adoptions. Meanwhile, harmonizing to Figure 12, EasyJet has the comparative lower involvement screen ratio, which indicates that EasyJet may hold more trouble to pay involvement disbursal than other company. As a consequence, an investing in EasyJet is more hazardous than invest in Ryanair and Jet2.
Gaining per portion has been widely used as measuring for the growing of a house every bit good as the index of the sum of net income could return to each portion. Although the EPS of Jet2 rose unusually, the PE ratio besides declined dramatically. On the other manus, it can be seen that the PE ratio of EasyJet every bit good as Ryanair has increased aggressively. It indicates possible capablenesss of future growing of the two companies which could give assurance to investors.
Interest Cover Ratio
Phosphorus: Tocopherol Ratio
From Figure B16, it can be seen that Jet2 has the longest clip to pay creditors, therefore has a longer clip to public-service corporations liabilities. However, it besides needs the longest clip to roll up receivables. On the other manus, although Ryanair has to pay creditors faster compared to the clip in 2008, the period is still longer than EasyJet. Furthermore, Ryanair could have debt much quicker than EasyJet. Thus Ryanair may hold the best efficiency hard currency flows which could lend to company operating.
Obviously from Figure B13, Ryanair has much higher figure of return on capital employed, which means that Ryanair could productively operation the company by utilizing investing. As a consequence, investor could have more involvements in the short tally from Ryanair instead than EasyJet, which has the lowest ROCE ratio among others.
B.2.2.2 Brief Evaluation
Based on the ratio discussed above, it can be seen that overall Ryanair is the best pick for investors compared to EasyJet and Jet2 despite its lower efficiency on the use of assets. It has the highest PE ratio and return on capital employed rate. Furthermore, the working capital of hard currency flows is besides considered as the best 1 among others. Investing on Ryanair could hold less hazardous than EasyJet.
Jet2 comparatively has a hapless status of capital. It seems that Jet2 may easier autumn into the quandary of debt trouble. Although EasyJet has a big sum of adoptions, and the lowest return on capital, a more flexible hard currency flow every bit good as a proper use of capital could be compensations. In add-on, higher PE ratio implies a possible power of growing. Therefore, investing on EasyJet could hold less hazardous than Jet2 and may likely acquire better net income in the hereafter.
To sum up, EasyJet as a growing company has adopt several schemes to vie in oligopoly market. EasyJet utilise low cost scheme to increase it efficiency in concern operation will utilize growing scheme to prehend larger market portion and spread out the size of the company. However, scarification of short term net income may take to unsatisfactions of stockholders. Furthermore, by looking at the histories of EasyJet, it can be seen that its growing program of aircraft buying lead to a heavy load on debt. EasyJet has possible risky due to the big proportion of liabilities. In recommendation, EasyJet could cut down its growing program while pay dividend to stockholder in order to relieve the struggles. As a consequence, the repute of EasyJet could be maintained and pull more financess invest in the capital. Hence, EasyJet may non necessitate to mostly depend on liabilities and the hazard of investing could cut down.
AnnaAero. ( 2008 ) . Flybe Heading for # 1 in UK Domestic Market ; Overall Demand Down Around 4 % in 2008. [ One line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.anna.aero/2008/12/05/flybe-heading-for-no-1-in-uk-domestic-market/ [ Accessed 05th December 2008 ]
Bevans, N. R. ( 2007 ) . Business Organizations and Corporate Law. New York: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Chauhan, S. P. S. ( 2009 ) . Microeconomicss: Theory and Applications. New Delhi: Learning Private Limited.
Daily Mail. ( 2010 ) . Stelios Warns He May Reclaim EasyJet Name. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dailymail.co.uk/money/article-1287205/Stelios-warns-reclaim-easyJet-name.html [ Accessed 16th June 2010 ]
Dransfield, R. ( 2004 ) . Business for Foundation Degrees and Higher Awards. Oxford: Heinemann
Dwivedi, D. N. ( 2008 ) . Microeconomicss: Theory and Applications. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley Ltd.
EasyJet. ( 2009 ) . Annual Report and Accounts 2009. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //2009annualreport.easyjet.com/files/pdf/easyJet_AR09.pdf
EasyJet. ( 2010 ) . EasyJet to Establish Two New Paths: Edinburgh to Dortmund and Dortmund to Thessaloniki. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.easyjet.com/en/news/new_routes_dortmund_edinburgh_thessaloniki.html
EasyJet. ( n. d. ) EasyJet Awards and Tributes. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.easyjet.com/EN/About/Information/infopack_awards.html
Fast Company. ( 2002 ) . Stelios Makes Growth Look Easy. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fastcompany.com/magazine/64/ioannou.html [ Accessed 31st October 2002 ]
Flight Global. ( 2010 ) . Haji-loannou Commands to Overturn EasyJet Expansion Strategy. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.flightglobal.com/articles/2010/05/14/342001/haji-ioannou-bids-to-overturn-easyjet-expansion-strategy.html [ Accessed 14th May 2010 ]
Jet2. ( 2009 ) . Annual Report 2009. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dartgroup.co.uk/pdf/DartReport09.pdf
Kothari, J. & A ; E, Barone. ( 2006 ) . Fiscal Accounting. An International Approach. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
London Evening Standard. ( 2010 ) . Standard Life Backs EasyJet after Stelios Quits. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard-business/article-23834947-standard-life-backs-easyjet-after-stelios-quits.do [ Accessed 17th May 2010 ]
Moschandreas, M. ( 2000 ) . Business Economics. London: Thomson Learning. New Dalhi: V. K. Publications.
Mukherjee, S. ( 2002 ) . Modern Economic Theory. New Delhi: New Age International Ltd.
Neild, C. & A ; Carysforth, C. ( 2004 ) . BTEC First Business Student Book. Oxford: Heinemann
New Statesman. ( 2010 ) . Guardian Chief Carolyn McCall to be New EasyJet Boss. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.newstatesman.com/business/2010/03/chief-executive-mccall-easyjet [ Accessed 24th March 2010 ]
Pike, R. & A ; N, Bill. ( 2009 ) . Corporate Finance and Investment. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
Ryanair. ( 2009 ) . Annual Report 2009. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ryanair.com/doc/investor/2009/Annual_report_2009_web.pdf
Rees, W. & A ; S, Saleem. ( 1995 ) . Corporate Governance & A ; Corporate Control. London: Cavendish Publishing Ltd.
Riley, G. ( 2005 ) . Industrial Economics. West Yorkshire: Tutor2u Limited.
Stokes B. ( 2010 ) . Economicss for Foundation and Diploma Students. London: Pearson Education Limited.
Suit 101. ( 2009 ) . EasyJet – Well Known and Popular Budget Airline. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //airplanes.suite101.com/article.cfm/easyjet_well_known_and_popular_budget_airline [ Accessed 8th September 2009 ]
Turner, M. C. ( n.d. ) . Shareholders. [ On line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Sc-Str/Shareholders.html