POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE USA
1.1 Location: –
The United States covers the full mid-section of North America, and occupies a district of 9,522,0572 square kilometer, get downing from Atlantic ocean situated in E to Pacific ocean situated in the West. It besides consists of Alaska, in the north-west corner of America ; and Hawaii found in the Pacific. Canada is situated to Norths of USA and Mexico to south. ( fig 1 )
1.2 Currency: –
The currency of United States of America is Dollar ( refer: fig2 ) and usually abbreviated as the dollar subscribe $ or US $ or USD. 1 dollar= 46.6RS ( Indian Rupees ) .
1.3 Population: –
The population in the twelvemonth 2010 was estimated to be 308.4 million.
1.4 Area: –
The country of United provinces is about 3,537,441 square stat mis. It has a coastline of 19,924 kilometres which is 8th longest coastline in the universe.
1.5 Important Cities: –
The United States of America is a state located in North America. There are 50 provinces in the United States of America. Its capital metropolis is Washington D.C. , ie District of Columbia known as Washington, the District founded on July 16, 1790. It has population of 5.4 million and is said to be eight-largest metropolitan country in state. ( fig 3 )
New York City is the biggest metropolis in the USA, which has population over 8 million people. Los Angeles is the second-biggest metropolis in the USA. California has about 4 million people. Chicago is the third-biggest metropolis in the USA, in which Illinois, has about 3 million people.
( 2 ) POLITICAL SYSTEM IN USA: –
The development of American authorities: –
The United provinces inherited many authorities patterns from the English swayers of colonial yearss. The English settlers brought with them the thoughts of representative authorities and civil autonomies when they came to America. These settlements became provinces after the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
They founded the first independent general authorities in the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
Therefore, Federal system of authorities was established. The United States authorities portions authorities powers with the provinces under the federal system established by United States Constitution. A written fundamental law provides the footing of authorities in the United States. It divides powers and responsibilities between the federal and province authorities. It specifies powers of each subdivision of the national authorities.
The three subdivisions of Federal Government are Legislative Branch, Executive Branch and Judicial Branch: – Fig.4
Legislative Branch includes Congress dwelling of house of Representatives and senate.
Executive Branch dwelling of The President, The Cabinet and The Federal Departments and Independent Agencies.
Judicial Branch dwelling of Supreme Court and other Federal Courts.
2.1 Justification: –
The authorities of the united provinces represents, serves and protects the American people at place and in foreign states. It seeks non merely to regulate, but besides to protect the autonomy of the provinces and the people. The measure of rights in the fundamental law guarantees that all people shall hold freedom of address and of faith, freedom of the imperativeness, the right of assembly and freedom from arbitrary intervention by federal government.it besides guarantees the right to test by jury and justness in the federal tribunals. The United States authorities Acts of the Apostless to see that no province deprives any individual of life, autonomy or belongings without due procedure of jurisprudence or denies equal protection of the jurisprudence.
( 3 ) Economy: –
Economically, the United System is one of the universe ‘s most widely developed and productive states. In the value of its agricultural, manufactured and mined merchandises United States equals no other state. The criterions of life of the people is high.
The United States is one of richest state in its economic production all over the universe in footings of entire economic system. ( GNP ) the state ‘s gross national product- an sum of about $ 4 trillion was the value of all merchandises such as services and goods that are produced by a state in a twelvemonth, 1985. U.S. entire domestic gross production in 2000 is shown in fig 5 ( appendix ) .
Inspite of its overall strength, U.S. economic system has faced jobs from clip to clip. The jobs suffered by U.S. includes recession besides faced by other states, depressions, and rising prices ( lifting monetary values ) .
3.1 COUNTRY ‘S FACTOR OF Production: –
Three chief factor of production ( fig. 6 ) found in USA are: –
Land or natural resources
Land or Natural resources: –
The natural stuffs is provided by a big assortment of natural resources that is backbone of the economic system of the United States. The most valuable resourses are minerals, dirts, H2O, air, wood and fish.
USA have big sedimentations of minerals like coal, natural gas and crude oil which are critical to state ‘s industrial strength. Other minerals include Cu, lead, gold, phosphates, potassium hydroxide, sulfur and Zn. However to run into it ‘s demand, the state has to import extra sums of crude oil, Fe ore and other minerals.
For families, farms and industries the H2O is supplied by lakes, farms, belowground sedimentations and rivers. The state uses about 450 billion gallons of H2O daily. Houseold compromises about 10 % of this sum.
There are huge sweeps of fertile dirt which provides favorable conditions to turning harvests in United States. Most fertile dirts include the dark soils along the Interior Plains and alluvial dirts along lower Missippi River Valley.
One of the many natural resourses that contribute to the US economic system. Logs from woods are used for timber and in doing other valuable merchandises.
Energy beginnings: –
The energy beginnings such as farms, families, mills, and motor vehicles consume huge sum of energy yearly. So assorted beginnings are consumed to bring forth the energy. Eg crude oil, natural gas, coal, H2O, atomic power etc.
Technical and selling expertness used in production know as human attempt. The income received from 1s ain human attempt is rewards.
It is individual most of import economic activity in the United States. It accounts for 20 % gross natural merchandises and about 19 % of the workers. Egs:
Mining provides critical natural stuffs for American industry.
The building industry provides occupations for many Americans.
Service industries are those economic activity that provide services instead than production. Eg information processing is one of many such industries. Other includes- authorities services and operation of hotels and eating houses.
Government disbursement plays a major portion in the economic system. Federal authorities, province authorities and local authoritiess provides employment to 1/6th of the U.S. workers. Along with its function as an employer and buyer of merchandises, the authorities provides income to certain groups of people.
Transportation system: –
A transit web spreads out widely over the United States. Highways organize a cardinal portion of the state ‘s first-class transit system. The building and fix of main roads provides occupations for people throughout the state. It has an norm of about 55 cars for every 100 people.
It is economic term for wealth that is used to bring forth more wealth. People ‘s invested economy are capital, because they produce more wealth through the involvement or dividends that they earn. It is economic system controlled chiefly by single and private companies alternatively of by the authorities. They ain and direct most of resourses used to bring forth goods and services. The term capitalist economy comes from capital. Chiefly refers to machines, roads, mills, office edifices, schools, substructure which are produced by worlds to bring forth goods and services. It stresses private economic picks. Peoples are free to make up one’s mind how they will gain and pass their income. Companies besides compete with one another to sell their merchandises. However authorities controls some economic system in every state, but capitalist economy ‘s accent on private economic determinations make it diffent from to other major economic system-
Communism and Assorted economic systems.
In communist economic system, the authorities owns or controls most of resources used in production and develops national programs for their usage.
In a assorted economic system, the authorities does some economic planning and controls some industries, but besides allows some single picks.
There are three types of concern capital: –
Fixed capital: –
These consists of mills, machinery, equipment, mills, new engineering, computing machines and other goods which are designed so that there is an addition in the productive potency of economic system in the hereafter old ages.
Working capital: –
This consists of goods of finished and semi-finished goods which are consumed in close hereafter or designed into a finished good in close hereafter. Egs stock lists.
Fiscal capital: –
The sum of money invested by the instigator of the concern.
Besides Thursdaies figure of factors influence economic determinations under capitalist economy are persons, concern, the market, income and authorities.
Persons: – It act upon the economic system as consumers, workers and inverstors.
Business: – It decides what to bring forth and where to carry on their activities.
Besides buy the necessary equipment and hire workers.
The market: – used by economic experts for topographic points and state of affairss in which people buy and
sell goods and services.
Income: – income in the capitalist economic system depends chiefly on the supply of and demand for accomplishments that society values most.
The authorities: – authorities in the capitalist state allows persons to utilize their belongings mostly as they wish and to work where they please.
Besides the three factor of production mentioned, 4th factor now is to be considered is: –
A competitive system or modified free endeavor forms the footing of the economic system of the United States, because it permits people to prosecute in economic activities mostly free from authorities control. In such system, persons and companies have freedom to do their ain economic programs and determinations. Persons and companies purchase industries, natural stuffs, equipment, mills and other points necessary for production and its their determination, as to how to utilize them for maximal net income.
( 4 ) Decision AND Findings: –
It can be said that USA is the 3rd or 4th in footings of entire country and 3rd largest by both population and country. In tems of economic system it is the universe ‘s largest economic system and is said to be 5th of planetary GDP.
With such sprawling transit web, communicating, largest stock exchange, modernisation of agribusiness, substructure, engineering, trades, research instruction U.S. has emerged as a world power and would stay so far coming old ages.
For any state to scale such a great tallness, their basicss will hold to be strong and they would hold to set in great attempt in all subdivisions of research and development.
( 5 ) Appendix: –
Fig 1. Location of USA
Fig 2. Currency of USA.
Fig 3 Important Cities of USA.
Fig 4. Constitutional Structure of USA.
Fig 5. U.S. Total Domestic Gross Production.
Fig 6. Economic System