National Conference Changing Landscape Of Retailing In India Economics Essay

Retailing is the largest private sector industry in the universe economic system with the planetary industry size transcending US $ 6.6 trillion.

The Indian retail market, which is the 5th largest retail finish globally, harmonizing to industry estimations is estimated to turn from the US $ 330 billion in 2007 to US $ 637 billion by 2015.

The Indian retail sector is traveling through a transmutation and this emerging market is witnessing a important alteration in its growing and investing form. Both bing and new participants are experimenting with new retail formats. Organised retail in India is good into a revolution so and has possible to spread out from urban to rural countries.

Rural India has more than 6 lakh small towns, with 128 million families lodging about 70 % of the state ‘s population that is gaining one tierce of the national income.

A recent survey on the Indian retail sector by ‘Crisil Research ‘ showed that organized retail could duplicate farm incomes in India by heightening husbandmans ‘ returns on nutrient points from the current low degree of 30-35 per centum of the retail monetary value to the international norm of over 50 per centum which would ensue from bettering the soon developing supply concatenation for unrefined nutrient points.

Higher farm incomes would profit the huge bulk of the population that is dependent on an agricultural income. Furthermore, this extra buying power in the custodies of husbandmans could add more than three per centum points to the state ‘s one-year gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) growing rate.A

Of late, India ‘s mostly rural population has besides caught the oculus of retail merchants looking for new countries of growing. Corporate India is already tautening up concrete programs to tap the rural retail market, which is turning at dual the rate of urban markets, with advanced strategies and human resource policies.

ITC launched the state ‘s first rural promenade ‘Chaupal Sagar ‘ , offering a diverse merchandise scope from FMCG to electronic contraptions to cars, trying to supply husbandmans a one-stop finish for all of their demands. Other such enterprises by assorted corporates include:

– ‘Hariyali Bazaar ‘ ( by DCM Shriram Group )

– ‘Adhaar ‘ ( by Godrej )

– ‘Tata Kisan Sansar ‘ ( by Tata Chemicals )

The research paper incorporates secondary informations.

This paper investigates the range and developments of rural retailing in India. We besides discuss the challenges faced by rural retailing and the assorted schemes for its enlargement.


India ‘s organized retail sector, which attracted legion participants in the last twelvemonth, with large names like Bharti, Reliance and Aditya Birla seeking to set up bridgehead, is set to witness multiplex growing in times to come. The lively sector will see an enlargement in operations of bing participants and the introduction of others like Mahindra & A ; Mahindra, Parsvnath, DLF, Hero Honda and India bulls.

Industry estimates predict that the overall size of the retail sector in India is expected to touch US $ 427 billion by 2010 and US $ 637 billion by 2015 with the organized section expected to account for 22 per cent by 2010, up from the present four per cent.

Harmonizing to planetary research house Ernst and Young, the rural market is projected to be bigger in India than the urban market for fast traveling consumer goods, with an one-year size of Rs.480 billion ( $ 12 billion ) in 2004 and turning.

The research house said rural ingestion outgo accounted for around 60 per centum, or Rs.9,135 billion ( $ 228 billion ) , of the state ‘s entire ingestion outgo.

This apart, the urban-rural wealth divide is besides contracting.

The ministry of communications and IT says that 54 per centum of the rich and comfortable families ( with an one-year income above Rs.500,000 or $ 12,500 ) live in urban countries and the balance 46 per centum in rural countries.

‘Hence, in entire disposable income footings, rural India offers great market potency, ‘ said Ranjan Biswas, a spouse in Ernst and Young and its national leader for retail and consumer merchandises pattern.

Rural Retailing can be divided into 3 types:

Rural Agricultural Retailing

Rural Industrial Products Retailing

Rural Consumer Products Retailing

Rural Agricultural Products Retailing:

These comprise agricultural capital goods, agricultural input goods, agricultural finance, agricultural merchandises retailing. The attention of which is largely taken by authorities or private bureaus and are good organized and really specific and non much scattered.

Rural Industrial Retailing:

Natural stuffs / industrial consumables, consumables for handi trades / handlooms/artisans ; Capital goods/machinery retailing etc

Rural Consumer Products Retailing:

Irrespective of the occupational position, wholly people have demands of day-to-day ingestion points. Local retail trade little or large caters to these demands, depending on their apprehension of the buying power of occupants of peculiar country. While authorities controlled retail concatenation popularly known as public distribution system ( PDS ) takes attention of the supply of indispensable trade goods to household at subsidized rates, it caters to a limited subdivision of demands merely. General trade fills in the spread between the PDS and Local demands. The consumer goods supply is determined by understanding of the profile of consumers and distinguishable sections of consumers to be catered.

Rural India is like a pyramid. The top of the pyramid is occupied by the rich husbandmans and business communities. They constitute about 5 per cent of the population. The following degree belongs to those with a regular income and the base of the pyramid is occupied by the huge bulk of the people who are day-to-day pay labourers.

Companies have tried all the conventional agencies like intelligence paper advertisement, wall picture, calendar adds etc. to sell their merchandises in the rural market. They besides piggie drive on the market image developed in the urban markets to make the rural sections and perforate the client sections. However, when confronted with rural markets, these merchandises ‘ entry and market constitution is dependent on factors clearly different from the 1s that help them set up in urban markets.

Changes in the Indian Rural scenario:

1 ) In 50 old ages merely, 40 % small towns have been connected by route, in following 10 old ages

another 30 % would be connected.

2 ) Percentage of Below Poverty Line ( BPL ) households declined from 46 % to 27 % .

3 ) Rural literacy degrees improved from 36 % to 59 % .

4 ) 41 million Kisan Credit Card games have been issued ( against 22 million credit-plus-

debit cards in urban ) , with cumulative recognition of Rs. 977 billion ensuing in

enormous liquidness.

5 ) Low incursion rates in rural countries, so there are many selling chances.

Problems in Rural Retailing

Some of the jobs faced by rural retail ventures in India are:

1 ) Deficit of work force: Runaway rates are high with employees recruited from urban countries go forthing their occupations after being stationed in these rural shops.

2 ) Inadequate coevals of effectual demand for manufactured nutrients

3 ) Inadequate substructure installations ( deficiency of physical distribution, roads

warehouses and media handiness )

4 ) Highly dispersed and thinly populated markets

5 ) Poor criterions of life, societal, economic and cultural retardation of the

rural multitudes

6 ) Low degree of exposure to different merchandise classs and merchandise trade names

Opportunities in Rural Retailing

Organized retail in rural countries has enormous chances.

These appear as jobs with the unorganised retail:

1 ) Goods sold via unorganised retail are frequently specious and there is no warrant of quality for many of the goods being sold be it agri-inputs, FMCG etc.

2 ) The typical store is cluttered and congested with limited assortment and few national trade names thereby low merchandise mixture.

3 ) Peoples in rural countries incur a poorness punishment in the scope of 5 % to 25 % i.e. the

goods are sold at monetary values higher than the maximal retail monetary value with tradesmans giving goods deficits, transit costs etc. as principle.

Large portion of the State population is dependent on agribusiness and resides in the rural and backward countries which are non portion of the mainstream substructure web. Large population coupled with their increasing exposure ( due to overseas telegram telecasting ) to public-service corporation goods, consumer durable goodss and other trade goods and merchandises of general and specific usage, have led to important addition in demand from these countries.

Due to substructure constrictions, the supply and distribution web of most of the companies does non perforate the backward countries of the State.

The critical success factors of the organized rural retail are monetary value, localised offering and a robust supply concatenation. The bazars would offer high quality cost competitory goods by streamlining the supply concatenation and extinguishing the intermediary cost centres. The State has important possible to prolong such undertakings.


The 4As Model when applied to this scenario comes up with the undermentioned challenges: –


India ‘s 627,000 small towns are spread over 3.2 million sq kilometer. However, given the hapless province of roads, it is an even greater challenge to regularly range merchandises to the widespread small towns. To service remote small towns, stockists use auto-rickshaws, bullock-carts and even boats in the backwaters of Kerela.


With low disposable incomes, merchandises need to be low-cost to the rural consumer, most of who are on day-to-day rewards. Some companies have addressed the affordability job by presenting little unit battalions.


There is a demand to offer merchandises that suit the rural market. Because of the deficiency of

electricity and iceboxs in the rural countries, Coca-Cola provides low-priced ice-boxes – a Sn box for new mercantile establishments and thermocol box for seasonal mercantile establishments.


Mass media is able to make merely to 57 % of the rural population. Making consciousness so, means utilizing targeted, unconventional media including ambient media. For bring forthing consciousness, events like carnivals and festivals, Haats, etc. , are used as occasions for trade name communicating.


The theory of client satisfaction and the theory of value add-on to the client are more appropriate to the rural consumer-cum-producer. Once the husbandman patronises a good or service, his trueness towards the firm/brand/service would ensue into a stable and long lasting standing relation.

In order for a house to supply consistent and regular service, it needs to depend on infrastructural support to make the farmer-both in footings of physical outreach and besides in footings of communicating. Those houses which work on developing these two critical support constructions stand to win in long term than those which are dependent on province or other service suppliers. The above is premised on the premise that a steadfast tries to venture into rural selling with a proved merchandise and pricing methodological analysis that entreaties the husbandman for whom every buying determination is torn between the investing demands and the ingestion needs. So, here it turns out that the a merchandise construct that has emanated from an apprehension of what meets the demands of a typical rural family than what gets developed as an off shoot of an urban merchandise bases to derive acceptableness easier than otherwise.

The two basic focal point countries to heighten rural retailing to make the 1000000s of rural manufacturers and consumers are:

Finding the right communicating scheme to make the possible cutomers and

Finding the best possible method of making the wares to the people in the remotest countries.

The acquisition ‘s from successful groups like HLL, Cavin Care, Tata chemicals etc should be applied by other companies along with advanced attacks which will aim to the demands of the rural people instead than extension of the merchandise.

eg. Tata Sky being launched at the same time in rural countries and this merchandise is more relevant besides for the rural niche as it is hard to put overseas telegrams out at that place.

Rural Consumer Insights says Rural India buys:

1 ) Products more frequently ( normally on a hebdomadal footing ) .

2 ) Small battalions, low unit monetary value more of import than economic system.

3 ) In rural India, brands seldom compete with each other ; they merely have to be present at the right topographic point.

4 ) Value for money, non inexpensive merchandises.

The future old ages of twenty-first century would progressively come across two distinguishable sets of merchandises and services going successful. They may be classified as below:

1. Products and services which are innovated to act upon and alter the criterion of life of rural people.

2. Products and services which are developed and offered to cut down societal, economic, cultural and disparities across the Earth and assist them fall in the mainstream of technological and informational mainstream.

Competition needs to germinate itself into a pool to portion the infrastructural and other resources to develop a cafeteria attack in supplying solutions to the umteen jobs that rural Indian society faces-whether it is in footings of societal, cultural, spiritual, political, set up that exists or in footings of physical and rational substructure development.

The attack of capitalising their market development attempts must travel beyond the present limited range of seeking revenue enhancement sops and other inducements from the province for their venturing into rural sphere. A theoretical account of three-party win-win state of affairs affecting consumer, manufacturer and the retail merchant should be created.

Village stores can place themselves as community resources through the fusing of merchandise and service maps. Adept schemes have increased the likeliness of positive sentiments interpreting into use. Initiating community events that are explicitly associated with the shop helps to beef up ties. These forums can re-energise the community. Equally good as being a platform for local events, there are mechanisms to prosecute the community at the operational degree.

Village stores can integrate societal installations. By moving as a focal point that provides an priceless service, the community function can be reinforced. In making so, retail merchants can make and capitalize on favorable comparings with retail environments that are perceived to be depersonalised.

Most of the merchandises which are retailed in rural markets in this class can be loosely classified in following 7 sections:

Oral hygiene and dental attention merchandises

Personal attention and toilet articles merchandises

Clothing wash attention points

Food merchandises, including processed nutrients, nutrient readying ingredients

Stationary merchandises and composing instruments, including educational merchandises such as text editions, school instruments such as geometry boxes, scrutiny ushers, model inquiry documents, etc.

Soft drinks and sodium carbonate

Pharmaceuticals and medical specialties

White Goods

The determination to retail these merchandises is really much dependant on the specific features of each of these merchandise classs and the geographic market features.

Oral hygiene and dental attention merchandises:

The retailing of the unwritten hygiene is based on the acknowledgment of the fact that the rural countries traditionally use natural merchandises for their unwritten and dental attention and that there handiness and popularity is rather high for assorted grounds. These merchandises can be retailed merely after mark consumer is educated about the merchandise and the convenience and advantage of utilizing it.

Personal Care and Toiletry Merchandises

These include bathing soaps, talcum pulverizations, and other cosmetics such as facial pick which have ready market in rural countries, as culturally Indian population is beauty witting and have traditionally been utilizing several natural and herbal merchandises for beauty sweetening. This can turn out to be an chance and challenge for retailing of such merchandises. The success in retailing these merchandises lies in get the better ofing hurdlings of seasonal based demand and undertaking specious merchandises available in the market,

Clothes Wash Care Items

Local unbranded points, local trade names and besides planetary trade names co-exist in rural India, at changing degree of monetary values, merchandise characteristics, signifiers, and sizes. The key for retailing prevarications in the handiness of such merchandises at every little and large mercantile establishment through effectual distribution.

Food Merchandises, Food Supplements and Processed Foods

The tendency of utilizing processed nutrient is yet non established in the rural markets as compared to urban. Merely few merchandises like papads, pickles, heat and fry nutrient points are more prevailing. Taste for processed nutrient points like condensed milk, fruit jams and squashes and nectars can non merely fulfill the non seasonal demands but can make new employment chances of employment by development of agro based industries in rural countries.

Stationery Products and Writing Instruments

Another major consumer goods sector is the letter paper sector, which has grown along with the development of instruction and increase in the figure of kids traveling to school. This has led to increase in the demand of school notebooks, text books, ushers, work books and inquiry Bankss and theoretical account scrutiny documents on one side, a scope of composing instruments, get downing from slates, slate pencils to pencils, pens, inks, refills and assorted other accoutrements.

Soft Drinks and Sodas

The demand for soft drinks is really good prevailing in rural countries as is in urban countries. Merely hurdle here is non handiness of cold storage in little stores and undertaking the local trade names emerged which may be sub criterion. Having different publicities during winter, summer and showery seasons along with delivery of countless bottle sizes runing from 200 milliliters, 300 milliliter, 500 milliliter, 1 liter, 1.5 liter and two liters as good could run into the assortment of category of people and therefore heighten the ingestion.

Pharmaceuticals and Medicines

Even in small towns the medical specialties, licensed drugs, pharmaceuticals are still marketed and sold under authorities control. Here it can be seen that proliferation of OTC ( over the counter ) merchandises and general drugs and Ayurveda preparations is done utilizing retailing tools of FMCG goods. Companies like P & A ; G, Amritanjan, kailas jeevan are few of such companies.

White Goods Selling

Consumption Pattern of white goods or consumer durable goodss has seen a major alteration in their acceptance by the consumers in India after the coming of MNCs into the Indian market. But, the fact is that most of these goods are merely available to the urban consumers because of easy handiness through distribution channels and traders which largely are concentrated in metropoliss or towns.

Now sing the fact that approx. 46 % of the rich people in India stay in rural India can lend to the major market for white goods provided distribution channels are made available to such sort of goods. Here, one can believe that the distribution channels and retailing channels can be shared by the assorted companies.

Proactive attack to put in:

Research and development to place the important jobs in rural life,

get downing from designation of countries where human plodding is rampant to the countries where application of scientific discipline and engineering would alter the productive operations.

Extension and instruction to alter the perceptual experience of the people in traveling

off from traditional inefficient patterns and further the local cognition and wisdom to construct rural cloth to better at that place corporate bargaining ability.

Infrastructural development to leverage the impulse and demand of rural people

to hold increased entree to urban substructure, installations and chances.

Creation and nutriment of regular and sustained employment and


Avenues in rural countries would put a foundation to strong and vivacious and

compensable rural selling profession.


The concern theoretical account for rural retail can be successful merely when integrating between the net income and societal motivation is evident. Authorization in footings of economic power, buying power, cognition and information airing is important for rural retail ventures to win. Decidedly there is batch of money in rural India. But there are hinderances at the same clip. The greatest hinderance is that the rural market is still germinating and there is no set format to understand consumer behaviour. However, the million dollar inquiry remains whether the retail would be able to capture the untapped potency at the underside of the pyramid and take India to a new growing way.