Macroeconomic Performance of France

Macroeconomic Performance of France ( A Triad Market Economy )

France, a Western European state, has a figure of economy-wide phenomena over the past three old ages which are analysed under the followers:

1. Absolute s ( Gross Domestic Product – GDP ) : – This is the “market value of all goods and services produced within a state in a given period of time” ( Gregory N.,2001 ) . Analysis of the economic informations shown in 1 reveals that France has been sing an increasing GDP ( current US $ ) official exchange rate of $ 2,146.58 in 2005 to $ 2,853.06 in 2008. However, the GDP growing ( one-year % ) which is the existent step of the market value of goods and services produced over a period of clip in relation to a changeless base-year monetary value ( i.e. per centum alteration in Real GDP ) indicates a fluctuating GDP degree of 1.9 in 2005 to 2.2 in 2007 and so 0.4 in 2008 due to the prevailing planetary economic crunch which has resulted in holds in executing of new authorities reforms ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) .

Datas Profile

France

2005

2007

2008

World position

Population, entire ( 1000000s )

60.87

61.71

62.05

Population growing ( one-year % ) )

0.6

0.6

0.6

Surface country ( sq. kilometer ) ( 1000s )

551.5

551.5

551.5

Poverty head count ratio at national poorness line ( % of population ) )

..

..

..

GNI, Atlas method ( current US $ ) ( one million millions )

2,190.87

2,466.76

2,702.18

GNI per capita, Atlas method ( current US $ ) )

34,940

38,790

42,250

GNI, PPP ( current international $ ) ( one million millions )

1,881.47

2,088.82

2,134.44

GNI per capita, PPP ( current international $ ) )

30,910

33,850

34,400

Peoples

Income portion held by lowest 20 % )

..

..

..

Life anticipation at birth, entire ( old ages ) )

80

81

..

Birthrate rate, entire ( births per adult female ) )

1.9

2.0

..

Adolescent birthrate rate ( births per 1,000 adult females ages 15-19 ) )

7

7

..

Contraceptive prevalence ( % of adult females ages 15-49 ) )

..

..

..

Births attended by skilled wellness staff ( % of entire ) )

..

..

..

Mortality rate, under-5 ( per 1,000 ) )

5

4

..

Malnutrition prevalence, weight for age ( % of kids under 5 ) )

..

..

..

Immunization, rubeolas ( % of kids ages 12-23 months ) )

87

87

..

Primary completion rate, entire ( % of relevant age group ) )

..

..

..

Ratio of misss to boys in primary and secondary instruction ( % ) )

100

100

..

Prevalence of HIV, entire ( % of population ages 15-49 ) )

0.4

0.4

..

Environment

Forest country ( sq. kilometer ) ( 1000s )

155.5

..

..

Agricultural land ( % of land country ) )

53.8

..

..

Renewable internal fresh water resources per capita ( three-dimensional metres ) )

..

2,893

..

Improved H2O beginning ( % of population with entree ) )

..

..

..

Improved sanitation installations, urban ( % of urban population with entree ) )

..

..

..

Energy usage ( kilogram of oil tantamount per capita ) )

4,537

..

..

CO2 emanations ( metric dozenss per capita ) )

6.2

..

..

Electric power ingestion ( kWh per capita ) )

7,945

..

..

Economy

GDP ( current US $ ) ( one million millions )

2,146.58

2,589.84

2,853.06

GDP growing ( one-year % ) )

1.9

2.2

0.4

Inflation, GDP deflator ( one-year % ) )

2.0

2.5

2.5

Agribusiness, value added ( % of GDP ) )

2

2

..

Industry, value added ( % of GDP ) )

21

21

..

Servicess, etc. , value added ( % of GDP ) )

77

77

..

Exports of goods and services ( % of GDP ) )

26

27

..

Imports of goods and services ( % of GDP ) )

27

28

..

Gross capital formation ( % of GDP ) )

20

22

..

Gross, excepting grants ( % of GDP ) )

42.8

41.8

..

Cash surplus/deficit ( % of GDP ) )

-2.8

-2.3

..

States and markets

Time required to get down a concern ( yearss ) )

7

7

7

Market capitalisation of listed companies ( % of GDP ) )

81.9

107.0

52.3

Military outgo ( % of GDP ) )

2.5

2.3

2.3

Mobile cellular subscriptions ( per 100 people ) )

79

90

93

Internet users ( per 100 people ) )

43.0

51.2

..

Roadss, paved ( % of entire roads ) )

100

..

..

High-technology exports ( % of manufactured exports ) )

20

19

..

Global links

Merchandise trade ( % of GDP ) )

45.1

45.3

46.1

Net swap footings of trade ( 2000 = 100 ) )

104

101

..

External debt stocks, entire ( DOD, current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

..

..

..

Entire debt service ( % of exports of goods, services and income ) )

..

..

..

Net migration ( 1000s )

761

..

..

Workers ‘ remittals and compensation of employees, received ( current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

11,945

13,745

15,133

Foreign direct investing, net influxs ( BoP, current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

84,997

159,463

..

Official development aid and official assistance ( current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

..

..

..

Beginning: World Development Indicators database, April 2009

2. Index Numbers –

This entails such economic informations as rising prices, GDP Deflator, Retail Price Index and Consumer Price Index. With mention to 2, it is apparent that the economic system had a low rising prices rate of 1.7 % in 2005 with a fringy autumn of 1.5 % in 2008. The rising prices rate is computed based on the theory of consumer monetary value index ( a step of the entire cost of goods and services purchase by a consumer over a given period ) and other indices like the manufacturer monetary value index and retail monetary value index. The economic system ‘s rising prices is linked to ongoing fiscal crisis and resistances against the authorities ‘s labor reforms. Therefore, to assist rectify this negative state of affairs, the authorities aims at increasing public investings and support of major sectors such as Bankss.

Year

Inflation rate ( consumer monetary values )

Rank

Percentage Change

Date of Information

2005

2.30 %

70

9.52 %

2004 est.

2006

1.70 %

38

-26.09 %

2005 est.

2007

1.50 %

29

-11.76 %

2006 est.

2008

1.50 %

23

0.00 %

2007 est.

2009

2.80 %

34

86.67 %

2008 est.

3. Percentage Changes: –

This encompasses such economic informations associated with economic growing, monetary values and unemployment. The Gallic economic system has a vivacious modern market that depends on market mechanisms with taking sectors such as power, public conveyance and defense mechanism ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . The economic system has in the past three old ages recorded a figure of growing through the activities of its prima sectors and its comparatively low rising prices rate. However, there has been a steady diminution in the unemployment rate from 9.90 % in 2006 to 7.90 % in 2009. An indicant of an economic growing as a consequence of increased authorities investings, reforms and policies.

Year

Unemployment rate

Rank

Percentage Change

Date of Information

2005

10.10 %

93

4.12 %

2004 est.

2006

9.90 %

100

-1.98 %

2005 est.

2007

8.70 %

101

-12.12 %

December 2006 est.

2008

7.90 %

101

-9.20 %

2007 est.

2009

7.40 %

95

-6.33 %

2008 est

4. Per Capital: –

With mention to 1, it is observed that France had a turning population of 60.87million in twelvemonth 2005 making 62.05million in 2008. However, analytic study on the Gini Index of France shows a information of 32.7 in the twelvemonth 2008. An indicant of a somewhat just distribution of income amongst the entire population ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . In the same item, the GDP-Per Capital PPP ( Buying Power Parity ) of the economic system steadily increased from $ 32,091.018 ( 5.06 % alteration ) in 2006 to $ 33563.427 ( 4.59 % alteration ) in 2007 and so $ 33744.452 ( 1.91 % alteration ) in 2008 as shown in 4.

5. Composite Indexs: –

This encompasses such economic informations as societal public assistance and quality of life indexs of a given economic system. With mention to 1, it is apparent that the mean life anticipation of the people is given as 81 old ages. This is attributed to a really favorable populating criterion and good quality of life. Moreso, the Gini Index of Turkey shows a information of 32.7 in the twelvemonth 2008 ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . An indicant of a comparatively just distribution of income amongst the entire population.

Macroeconomic Performance of Turkey ( A Small Open Economy )

1. Absolute s ( Gross Domestic Product – GDP ) : –

Critical analysis of the economic informations shown in 5 reveals that Turkey has been sing an increasing GDP ( current US $ ) official exchange rate of $ 483.99 in 2005 to $ 794.23 in 2008. However, the GDP growing ( one-year % ) which is the existent step of the market value of goods and services produced over a period of clip in relation to a changeless base-year monetary value ( i.e. per centum alteration in Real GDP ) indicates a diminishing GDP degree of 8.4 in 2005 to 3.8 in 2008 over the last three old ages. This diminution in GDP growing is due to the economic impact of the planetary fiscal crisis on the Turkish economic system. Besides, the worsening consequence of the GDP could be linked to crisp diminutions in end product with imports transcending the exports over the last 3 old ages every bit good as decrease in authorities disbursement such as military outgo ( % of GDP ) of 2.5 in 2005 to 2.1 in 2008.

Datas Profile

Turkey

2005

2007

2008

World position

Population, entire ( 1000000s )

71.17

73.00

73.91

Population growing ( one-year % )

1.3

1.3

1.2

Surface country ( sq. kilometer ) ( 1000s )

783.6

783.6

783.6

Poverty head count ratio at national poorness line

( % of population )

..

..

..

GNI, Atlas method ( current US $ ) ( one million millions )

443.31

593.03

690.71

GNI per capita, Atlas method ( current US $ )

6,230

8,120

9,340

GNI, PPP ( current international $ ) ( one million millions )

772.52

946.75

1,017.59

GNI per capita, PPP ( current international $ )

10,850

12,970

13,770

Peoples

Income portion held by lowest 20 %

5.2

..

..

Life anticipation at birth, entire ( old ages )

71

72

72

Birthrate rate, entire ( births per adult female )

2.2

2.1

..

Adolescent birthrate rate ( births per 1,000 adult females ages 15-19 )

40

39

..

Contraceptive prevalence ( % of adult females ages 15-49 )

..

..

..

Births attended by skilled wellness staff ( % of sum )

..

..

..

Mortality rate, under-5 ( per 1,000 )

29

23

..

Malnutrition prevalence, weight for age ( % of kids under 5 )

..

..

..

Immunization, rubeolas ( % of kids ages 12-23 months )

91

96

..

Primary completion rate, entire ( % of relevant age group )

86

97

..

Ratio of misss to boys in primary and secondary instruction ( % )

89

90

..

Prevalence of HIV, entire ( % of population ages 15-49 )

..

..

..

Economy

GDP ( current US $ ) ( one million millions )

483.99

655.88

794.23

GDP growing ( one-year % )

8.4

4.6

3.8

Inflation, GDP deflator ( one-year % )

7.1

7.6

10.6

Agribusiness, value added ( % of GDP )

11

9

10

Industry, value added ( % of GDP )

29

28

28

Servicess, etc. , value added ( % of GDP )

61

63

62

Exports of goods and services ( % of GDP )

22

22

24

Imports of goods and services ( % of GDP )

25

27

29

Gross capital formation ( % of GDP )

20

22

22

Gross, excepting grants ( % of GDP )

..

25.5

..

Cash surplus/deficit ( % of GDP )

..

1.4

..

States and markets

Time required to get down a concern ( yearss )

6

6

6

Market capitalisation of listed companies ( % of GDP )

33.4

43.7

14.8

Military outgo ( % of GDP )

2.5

2.1

2.1

Mobile cellular subscriptions ( per 100 people )

61

85

89

Internet users ( per 100 people )

14.4

29.0

33.1

Roadss, paved ( % of entire roads )

..

..

..

High-technology exports ( % of manufactured exports )

2

0

..

Global links

Merchandise trade ( % of GDP )

39.3

42.3

42.0

Net swap footings of trade ( 2000 = 100 )

97

95

..

External debt stocks, entire ( DOD, current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

169,269

251,477

..

Entire debt service ( % of exports of goods, services and income )

37.5

32.1

..

Net migration ( 1000s )

-71

..

..

Workers ‘ remittals and compensation of employees, received ( current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

851

1,209

1,360

Foreign direct investing, net influxs ( BoP, current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

10,031

22,195

..

Official development aid and official assistance ( current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

459

797

2. Index Numbers –

This entails such economic informations as rising prices, GDP Deflator, Retail Price Index and Consumer Price Index. With mention to 5 & A ; 6, it is apparent that the economic system of Turkey enjoyed a low rising prices rate of 7.1 % in 2005 but soared higher to 10.6 % in 2008 as indicated by the GDP Deflator which measures the mean monetary value degree in the economic system. The rising prices rate is computed based on the theory of consumer monetary value index ( a step of the entire cost of goods and services purchase by a consumer over a given period ) and other indices like the manufacturer monetary value index and retail monetary value index. Turkey ‘s rising prices was attributed to weak financial reforms, immense populace sector shortages and high bribable patterns. However, as a step to rectify the inflationary tendency, the authorities has introduced tighter financial policies with support from the International Monetary Fund. Besides, the prospective EU rank of Turkey every bit good as the debut of effectual economic and judicial reforms are anticipated to make stronger economic additions.

3. Percentage Changes: –

This encompasses such economic informations associated with economic growing, monetary values and unemployment. The Turkish economic system is a dynamic mix of agribusiness, commercialism and modern industry but preponderantly merchandise on fabrics with an increasing historic Real GDP growing that was interrupted over the past 3 old ages. The economic system attained a lower monetary value degree in 2005 at a low rising prices rate of 7.1 % but soared over the last 3 old ages with an rising prices rate making a high of 10.6 % in 2008 as indicated by the GDP Deflator. This in bend led to a steady unemployment rate of 10.20 % in 2006 and 2007 with a per centum alteration of -2.94 % doing a diminution in unemployment rate accounting for 9.9 % unemployment in 2007. The diminution in unemployment rate was a consequence of the impact of new investors in the economic system, tighter authorities financial policies on rising prices rate every bit good as the support of the IMF. However, the unemployment rate soared higher in 2008 accounting for 10.7 % unemployment rate due to the planetary economic contractions which has cut down the degree of economic production in the state.

Year

Unemployment rate

Rank

Percentage Change

Date of Information

2005

9.30 %

84

-11.43 %

2004 est.

2006

10.20 %

106

9.68 %

2005 est.

2007

10.20 %

115

0.00 %

2006 est.

2008

9.90 %

123

-2.94 %

2007 est.

2009

10.70 %

127

8.08 %

2008 est

4. Per Capital: –

With mention to 5, it is observed that Turkey had a turning population of 71.17million in twelvemonth 2005 making 73.91million in 2008. A population which had a steady growing rate of 1.3 % between 2005 and 2007 with a fringy diminution in growing rate of 1.2 % in 2008 due to execution of birth control policies. However, analytic study on the Gini Index of Turkey shows a information of 43.6 in the twelvemonth 2003. An indicant of a somewhat just distribution of income amongst the entire population ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . In the same item, the GDP-Per Capital PPP ( Buying Power Parity ) of the economic system steadily increased from $ 12106.673 ( 10 % alteration ) in 2006 to $ 12890.746 ( 6.48 % alteration ) in 2007 and so $ 13138.559 ( 1.92 % alteration ) in 2008 as shown in 8.

5. Composite Indexs: –

This encompasses such economic informations as societal public assistance and quality of life indexs of a given economic system. With mention to 9 on Appendix II, it can be argued that Turkey has over the past three old ages had a favorable life criterion and good quality of life owing to an mean life anticipation of 71 old ages. Moreso, the Gini Index of Turkey shows a information of 43.6 in the twelvemonth 2003 ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . An indicant of a somewhat just distribution of income amongst the entire population.

Macroeconomic Performance of Nigeria ( Non-Triad Emerging Economy )

1. Absolute s ( Gross Domestic Product – GDP ) : –

Sing the economic informations shown in 9, it can be argued that the economic system has had an increasing GDP ( current US $ ) official exchange rate of $ 112.25 in 2005 to $ 212.08 in 2008 due to increased export of rough oil and planetary rise in monetary value of rough oil. Moreso, the GDP growing ( one-year % ) grew from 5.4 in 2005 to 6.4 in 2007 and so declined to 5.3 in 2008 due to hapless macroeconomic direction, political instability, hapless substructures, deficiency of variegation of the economic system and planetary economic crisis ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) .

Datas Profile

Nigeria

2005

2007

2008

World position

Population, entire ( 1000000s )

141.36

147.98

151.32

Population growing ( one-year % )

2.4

2.2

2.2

Surface country ( sq. kilometer ) ( 1000s )

923.8

923.8

923.8

Poverty head count ratio at national poorness line ( % of population )

..

..

..

GNI, Atlas method ( current US $ ) ( one million millions )

87.69

143.29

175.62

GNI per capita, Atlas method ( current US $ )

620

970

1,160

GNI, PPP ( current international $ ) ( one million millions )

215.51

274.28

293.10

GNI per capita, PPP ( current international $ )

1,520

1,850

1,940

Peoples

Income portion held by lowest 20 %

..

..

..

Life anticipation at birth, entire ( old ages )

47

47

..

Birthrate rate, entire ( births per adult female )

5.5

5.3

..

Adolescent birthrate rate ( births per 1,000 adult females ages 15-19 )

128

127

..

Contraceptive prevalence ( % of adult females ages 15-49 )

..

..

..

Births attended by skilled wellness staff ( % of sum )

..

..

..

Mortality rate, under-5 ( per 1,000 )

194

189

..

Malnutrition prevalence, weight for age ( % of kids under 5 )

..

..

..

Immunization, rubeolas ( % of kids ages 12-23 months )

62

62

..

Primary completion rate, entire ( % of relevant age group )

..

..

..

Ratio of misss to boys in primary and secondary instruction ( % )

83

..

..

Prevalence of HIV, entire ( % of population ages 15-49 )

3.2

3.1

..

Environment

Forest country ( sq. kilometer ) ( 1000s )

110.9

..

..

Agricultural land ( % of land country )

81.2

..

..

Renewable internal fresh water resources per capita ( three-dimensional metres )

..

1,493

..

Improved H2O beginning ( % of population with entree )

..

..

..

Improved sanitation installations, urban ( % of urban population with entree )

..

..

..

Energy usage ( kilogram of oil tantamount per capita )

743

..

..

CO2 emanations ( metric dozenss per capita )

0.8

..

..

Electric power ingestion ( kWh per capita )

127

..

..

Economy

GDP ( current US $ ) ( one million millions )

112.25

165.92

212.08

GDP growing ( one-year % )

5.4

6.4

5.3

Inflation, GDP deflator ( one-year % )

19.8

4.8

14.4

Agribusiness, value added ( % of GDP )

33

33

31

Industry, value added ( % of GDP )

44

39

41

Servicess, etc. , value added ( % of GDP )

24

28

28

Exports of goods and services ( % of GDP )

47

40

43

Imports of goods and services ( % of GDP )

31

30

30

Gross capital formation ( % of GDP )

..

..

..

Gross, excepting grants ( % of GDP )

..

..

..

Cash surplus/deficit ( % of GDP )

..

..

..

States and markets

Time required to get down a concern ( yearss )

43

34

31

Market capitalisation of listed companies ( % of GDP )

17.2

52.0

23.5

Military outgo ( % of GDP )

0.0

0.0

0.0

Mobile cellular subscriptions ( per 100 people )

13

27

42

Internet users ( per 100 people )

3.5

6.8

7.3

Roadss, paved ( % of entire roads )

..

..

..

High-technology exports ( % of manufactured exports )

..

..

..

Global links

Merchandise trade ( % of GDP )

63.4

57.6

58.3

Net swap footings of trade ( 2000 = 100 )

146

168

..

External debt stocks, entire ( DOD, current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

22,178

8,934

..

Entire debt service ( % of exports of goods, services and income )

15.8

1.4

..

Net migration ( 1000s )

-170

..

..

Workers ‘ remittals and compensation of employees, received ( current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

3,329

9,221

9,980

Foreign direct investing, net influxs ( BoP, current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

2,013

6,087

..

Official development aid and official assistance ( current US $ ) ( 1000000s )

6,414

2,042

..

2. Index Numbers –

This entails such economic informations as rising prices, GDP Deflator, Retail Price Index and Consumer Price Index. With mention to 11, it is apparent that the economic system had a high rising prices rate of 13.5 % in 2005 with a worsening rate from 10.5 % in 2007 to 5.4 % in 2008 due to the execution of IMF recommended reforms by the authorities by manner of barricading inordinate pay demands, modernization of the banking sector every bit good as declaration of regional differences amongst the oil bring forthing provinces ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . However, the current president has indicated its committedness to the on-going economic reforms with accent on infrastructural development through the activities of public / private partnerships.

Year

Inflation rate ( consumer monetary values )

Rank

Percentage Change

Date of Information

2003

14.20 %

23

2002 est.

2004

13.80 %

27

-2.82 %

2003 est.

2005

16.50 %

211

19.57 %

2004 est.

2006

13.50 %

204

-18.18 %

2005 est.

2007

10.50 %

192

-22.22 %

2006 est.

2008

5.40 %

131

-48.57 %

2007 est.

2009

11.60 %

166

114.81 %

2008 est.

3. Percentage Changes: –

This encompasses such economic informations associated with economic growing, monetary values and unemployment. Nigerian economic system is an undiversified economic system with complete dependance on the oil industry which constitutes 95 % of her foreign exchanges and a 80 % gross of the authorities budget ( Cardinal Intelligence Agency, 2006 ) . However, harmonizing to 12, there has been a consistent autumn in monetary values over the past 3 old ages as indicated by the falling inflationary rate from 13.5 % in 2005 to 5.4 % in 2008 with unemployment and poorness rate surging over the last 3 old ages from 2.09 % in 2006 to 4.90 % in 2008 due to corrupt authorities, political instability and deficiency of variegation of the state ‘s economic system ( Uwakonye M. , et Al, 2006 ) . However, to control this tendency, the authorities has pledged its commitment to contending corruptness through the anti-corruption enterprise ( watch Canis familiaris ) every bit good variegation of the state ‘s economic system into countries like agribusiness, etc.

Year

Unemployment rate

Rank

Percentage Change

Date of Information

2003

28.00 %

30

1992 est.

2006

2.90 %

27

-89.64 %

2005 est.

2007

5.80 %

65

100.00 %

2006 est.

2008

4.90 %

65

-15.52 %

2007 est.

2009

4.90 %

60

0.00 %

2007 est.

4. Per Capital: –

With mention to 10, it is observed that Nigeria had a turning population of 141.36million ( 2.4 % growing rate ) in twelvemonth 2005 making 151.32million in 2008 ( 2.2 % growing rate ) due to cultural behaviors and unequal birth control policies / programmes. However, the Gini Index of Nigeria shows a information of 43.7 in the twelvemonth 2003. An indicant of unjust distribution of income amongst the entire population ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . However, the GDP-Per Capital PPP ( Buying Power Parity ) of the economic system increased from $ 268.3 ( 9.67 % alteration ) in 2006 to $ 319.572 ( 8.25 % alteration ) in 2008 as shown in 13.

5. Composite Indexs: –

This encompasses such economic informations as societal public assistance and quality of life indexs of a given economic system. With mention to 10, it can be argued that Nigeria has over the past three old ages had an unfavorable life criterion and hapless quality of life owing to an mean life anticipation of 47 old ages due to hapless wellness installations, misdirection of public financess, etc.

Moreso, the Gini Index of Turkey shows a information of 43.7 in the twelvemonth 2003 ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . An indicant of unjust distribution of income amongst the entire population due to corruptness and hapless macroeconomic policies.

Solution 2

Summary of International Trade Performance of France

The construction of the Gallic economic system has been good planned over the past 3 old ages to back up a comparatively high volume of international trade due to favorable trading policies and political stableness thereby doing it the 3rd largest bargainer in European Union and the 2nd universe largest bargainer in service and farm merchandises ( Economy Watch, 2009 ) . Major exports includes: Fe, steel, machinery and transit equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, autos, crude oil and consumer merchandises while primary imports includes: chemicals, petroleum oil, vehicles, aircraft, plastics and machinery with cardinal foreign spouses such as Germany, UK, US, Italy, Belgium and Spain.

However, the economic system ‘s import grew from $ 473.3 billion in 2006 to $ 600.9 billion in 2008 due to many-sided treatise while export grew from $ 443.4 billion in 2006 to $ 546 billion in 2008 with its farm merchandises and fabrication industry accounting for 2.5 % and 27 % of its GDP severally ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) as shown in 14a & A ; 14b in the appendix. This has led to the subsidization of its agricultural sector and induction of structural reforms to further foreign trade.

Summary of International Trade Performance of Turkey

The Turkish economic system is a dynamic mix of agribusiness, fabrics and vesture, commercialism, conveyance and banking which operates a bilateral pact with less restrictive trade policies, favorable external environment and institutional environment. The economic system is really unfastened to imports with an export list of: dress, conveyance equipment, groceries, fabrics and metal industries with cardinal foreign spouses like Germany, UK, UAE, Italy, France and Russia ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) .

However, Turkish fabric and vesture market is presently faced with stiff competition in the international market with the terminal of the planetary quota system while other sectors are increasingly deriving competitory advantage on its export list accounting for an increasing export from $ 115.4 billion in 2007 to $ 140.7 billion in 2008 ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) .

However, its imports soared from $ 162 billion in 2007 to $ 193.9 billion in 2008 ( as shown in 15 in the appendix ) due to worsening trade balance and its turning economic activities through capital and intermediate goods imports ( Burak, 2009 ) .

Summary of International Trade Performance of Nigeria

The Nigerian economic system is a mix of oil industry, light fabrication and agribusiness with an unhealthy dependance on the oil industry which accounts for 95 % of her exports and 80 % domestic budgetary gross ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . Her major exports are: rough oil, gum elastic merchandises, chocolate, gum Arabic, Anacardium occidentale, java and ginger with cardinal foreign spouses like US, UK, India, Brazil, France, Spain, China ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) .

Nigerian ‘s exports rose from $ 61.82 billion in 2007 to $ 76.03 billion in 2008 due to increased production of rough oil and liquefied natural gas while imports grew from $ 38.8 billion in 2007 to $ 76.03 billion in 2008 ( as shown in 16a & A ; 16b in the appendix ) due to over dependance on the oil roar which in bend spawned other economic deformations thereby making a high leaning for import demands ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . However, local companies such as pharmaceuticals and fabrics have lost their competitory advantage in the international market owing to hapless substructure, weak reforms, bureaucratism, political instability, corruptness and rational belongings right misdemeanors ( US Department of State, 2009 ) . Nevertheless, in a command to further international trade, new structural reforms such as the anti-corruption watchdog ( Economic Financial Crimes Commission ) have been initiated. Moreso, in March 2009, Nigeria and US met under the Trade and Investment Framework Agreement with the purpose of prolonging bing work plan and possible reappraisal of her trade policies and market entree ( US Department of State, 2009 ) .

Solution 3

Advantages of France as Potential Source of Input for a foreign Fabric Industry

I. Availability of Qualified Labour: The Gallic economic system has long been associated with enormous success in its manner and fabric sector particularly within the Lyon part. However, the economic system which accounts for over 2,478 fabric companies offers readily available qualified human resources ( work force ) with a entire turnover of over $ 5.2 billion ( Fashion informat, 2008 ) thereby doing it an advantageous beginning of qualified labor ( input ) to textile houses located outside the Gallic economic system.

two. Availability of Raw Materials: France has been argued to be the universe ‘s 2nd largest and taking manufacturers of agricultural green goods in Western Europe ( Geography IQ, 2009 ) thereby ensuing in the handiness of natural stuffs used in the fabric industry and other relevant sectors. However, reappraisal of its reforms based on execution of the Common Agricultural Policy and the Uruguay Round of the GATT Agreement ( Geography IQ, 2009 ) has driven increased farm green goods which in bend Fosters handiness of natural stuffs such as narration, fiber, wool etc as beginnings of inputs for the fabric industry.

three. Availability of Capital Equipment: Known for its traditional manner, the Gallic economic system is said to be the fifth biggest exporter of modern fabric engineering / machinery in the universe ( Jurg, 2009 ) . The economic system under the Gallic Textile Machinery Association boost over 35 fabric makers accounting for a turnover of over $ 1.3 billion from gross revenues of particular fabric machines and equipment for weaving readying, whirling, coating, et cetera in the universe. Thus, doing its economic system a possible beginning of input ( capital equipment ) to any fabric industry.

four. Availability of Research and Development: The application of modern production expertness and proficient know-how has been attributed to France success as a major research and development participant in the fabric universe ( David, 2006 ) . In add-on, the economic system has recorded a continued tremendous investings in research and development activities at top Gallic schools and the Gallic Institute for fabric / Apparel with the purpose of guaranting modern developments in proficient and functional fabrics ( Invest in France Agency, 2009 ) thereby doing the economic system an advantageous beginning of knowledge-input for any textile house.

Disadvantages of France as Potential Source of Input for a foreign Fabric Industry

Expensive Labor: Despite the handiness of qualified textile labour force, France has a major disadvantage as a possible beginning of labor input due to high unit costs of labor ( Ambrose, 2007 ) . Sourcing of labour resources is rather expensive thereby puting the economic system amongst universe ‘s most expensive beginnings of labour supply. A state of affairs that tends to deter the involvements of foreign textile houses meaning to beginning its labor inputs.
Expensive Capital Equipment: The Gallic economic system which is good known as one of the taking makers of state-of-the-art fabric machinery / engineering has been argued to be an expensive provider of capital equipment. A state of affairs that has resulted in houses concentrating their workss in other parts of the universe by seemingly sourcing such capital equipment from alternate cheaper beginnings ( Ambrose, 2007 ) .

Advantages of Turkey as a Potential Source of Input for a foreign Car Manufacturer

Handiness of Raw Material: The Turk economic system has since clip immemorial been actively involved in the exportation of metal industries such as steel and Fe ( CIA World Factbook, 2009 ) . Therefore, the handiness of these natural stuffs ( steel and Fe ) has resulted in successful constitution of car industries and other steel dependent companies within the economic system thereby showcasing the economic system as a possible beginning of input for foreign auto fabrication houses.

two. Cheap Labor: Harmonizing to a research study, the Turk economic system has continued to be one of the most rapid turning car markets in the universe owing to low production cost and handiness of inexpensive labor ( RNCOS, 2009 ) . A state of affairs that has encouraged the activities of foreign investors thereby doing the economic system an attractive beginning of inexpensive labor inputs for both foreign and local car houses.

three. Availability of Technology: The car industry in Turkey experienced 11 % addition in production in 2007 compared to 2006 due to the presence of sophisticated technological resources ( RNCOS, 2009 ) . However, the economic system is expected to profit from a planned $ 2 billion investing aimed at upgrading its bing engineering within the car industry with an one-year car production making 1.8million by 2012 ( RNCOS, 2009 ) . Therefore, rendering the economic system as a possible beginning of technological input to any foreign car administration.

Disadvantages of Turkey as Potential Source of Input for a foreign Car Manufacturer

I. Expensive Natural Materials: The impact of the economic contraction every bit good as the devaluation of the Turkish Lira has greatly lowered the net income border of major providers of natural stuffs within the economic system ( Swedish Trade Council, 2006 ) . A state of affairs that has in bend resulted in increasing monetary values of natural stuffs such as steel and Fe ( Swedish Trade Council, 2006 ) thereby presenting a negative consequence as a beginning of input to foreign auto makers.

two. Expensive Research & A ; Development: The Turkish economic system has been sing a lifting cost on new investings and research and development ( Swedish Trade Council, 2006 ) . This is apparent as planned car investings are said to consist of $ 3.5 billion for capacity edifice, $ 3.5 billion for development of new designs and $ 2billion for ascent of bing engineering ( RNCOS, 2009 ) . A state of affairs that tends to deter foreign auto manufacturers from sing the economic system as a possible beginning of research & A ; development input.

Advantages of Nigeria as a Potential Source of Input for a foreign Cement Industry

I. Handiness of Raw Material: The Nigerian economic system is a major mix of agribusiness and oil industry with agricultural green goods with fuel and excavation accounting for approximately 97 % of her export ( US Department of State, 2009 ) . However, the handiness mineral resources such as limestone sedimentations as primary natural stuffs for the cement industry has been a asset to the economic system as major private owned and public administrations like Dangote Group, Ashaka Cement and WAPCO has continuously explored the economic system as a great beginning of primary natural stuff input for the industry of cements ( International Development Research Centre, 2004 ) .

two. Availability of Cheap Labour: Harmonizing to the International Development Research Centre, the Nigerian economic system has a readily inexpensive labor force with 10 % stand foring professional class, 2 % experts and 88 % stand foring unskilled and skilled class within the cement industry ( International Development Research Centre, 2004 ) . Moreso, a bulk of the labor ( 88 % of unskilled work force ) required in the cement industry is arguably inexpensive to beginning ( International Development Research Centre, 2004 ) . A state of affairs that tends to drive the involvement of foreign cement houses in the way of sourcing inexpensive labor inputs from the economic system.

Disadvantages of Nigeria as a Potential Source of Input for a foreign Cement Industry

I. Insufficient Qualified Labour Supply: Harmonizing to a study, Nigerian economic system is believed to be sing labour short falls within the cement industry as out of the estimated 10,000 skilled staff strength needed for effectual operations merely 2,500 are deemed to be available ( BusinessDay, 2009 ) . This in bend is a major disadvantage to the economic system in footings of a possible beginning of labor input by foreign cement houses.

two. Poor Research & A ; Development: Nigerian economic system has been greatly plagued with a hapless degree of research and development within the cement industry owing to political- instability, hapless authorities support and hapless execution of economic policies and reforms ( BusinessDay, 2009 ) . Moreso, the encouragement of mass importing of cement merchandises in a command to run into its local building demands ( Punch, 2008 ) has resulted in carelessness of farther investings on new technological developments within the industry.

three. Inadequate Capital Equipment: Owing to hapless support of the industry, it has been argued that investings on capital equipment and machinery have been rated low as current authorities policies are geared towards bridging the spread between demand and supply of cement in the state by manner of easing importation of cements ( Punch, 2008 ) . A state of affairs that has resulted in unequal equipment beginning thereby presenting a disadvantage to the economic system as a possible beginning of capital equipment input to foreign cement houses.

Solution 4

Agrifood Industrial Sector of France

Strengths

Failing

Handiness of good and accessible market that consists of consumers with high disbursement power

Increasing figure of rivals

Political stableness

Economic growing

Short period of about 8 yearss for registering and get downing up a company

Cheap registering fees for new concerns

Availability of universe category substructures

Handiness of qualified work force

Exceeding environment driven by favorable authorities policies and reforms

Cheap labour cost particularly within the

EU-15 zone

Handiness of modern research & A ; development support

Beginning: Invest in France

Automotive Sector of France

Strengths

Failing

Favorable trade policies and regulative advantages such as free motion of trade and capital within the euro zone

Increasing degree of competition

Handiness of modern engineering and regulative advantages

Imposed charges such as CO2 emanation charges

Handiness of dependable and competitory energy supply

Car markets are non wholly planetary

Handiness of substructures

Higher labor cost when compared to competitory economic systems outside the EU-15 zone

Handiness of qualified work force resource

Handiness of modern research & A ; development

Cheap labour cost particularly within the

EU-15 zone

Short period of about 8 yearss for registering and get downing up a company

Cheap registering fees for new concerns

Deregulatory patterns

Political stableness

Economic growing

Beginnings: Invest In France, International Business

Automotive & A ; Transportation Equipment Sector of Turkey

Strengths

Failing

Handiness of readily accessible markets to EU, Central Asia and Middle East

Increasing degree of competition

Presence of Tax inducements for foreign investors

Somewhat politically unstable economic system

Short period of about 1 twenty-four hours for registering and get downing up a company

Presently plagued by planetary fiscal contractions

Broad FDI ordinances

Weak Justice & A ; Intellectual belongings right protection system

Highly reduced corporate revenue enhancement rate

Not an EU member

Handiness of favorable demographics

Kurdish issue / human rights

Prospect for EU rank

Macroeconomic instability

Privatisation /deregulatory patterns

Current ascent of bing substructures

Low production / service costs

Handiness of inexpensive labor

Potential political stableness

Progressive economic growing

Beginning: Global Financial Magazine, Turkish Labour Law, Centre for European Policy Surveies

Energy Sector of Turkey

Strengths

Failing

Handiness of readily accessible markets to EU, Central Asia and Middle East

Increasing degree of competition

Presence of Tax inducements for foreign investors

Somewhat politically unstable economic system

Short period of about 1 twenty-four hours for registering and get downing up a company

Presently plagued by planetary fiscal contractions

Highly reduced corporate revenue enhancement rate

Weak Justice & A ; Intellectual belongings right protection system

Handiness of favorable demographics

Not an EU member

Privatisation / deregulatory patterns

Kurdish issue / human rights

Current ascent of bing substructures

Macroeconomic instability

Prospect for EU rank

Low production / service costs

Handiness of inexpensive labor

Potential political stable economic system

Progressive economic growing

Broad FDI ordinances

Beginning: Global Financial Magazine, Turkish Labour Law, Centre for European Policy Surveies

Oil Sector of Nigeria

Strengths

Failing

Handiness of market merchandises ( natural resources i.e. crude oil )

Increasing degree of competition

Privatisation / Commercialisation of public endeavors such as downstream industry of the oil sector

Insecurity

Handiness of human capital

Corruptness

Low unit labor cost

Intellectual belongings right protection system

Handiness of favorable demographics

Inadequate research & A ; development

Potential economic growing due to low debt profile of the economic system

Macroeconomic misdirection

Large market size

High production costs

Political stableness and democratic procedure

Poor Infrastructures

Member of OPEC

Absence of trade liberalization

Beginning: US Department of States, CIA World Factbook 2009,

Ayanwale, 2007

Agricultural Sector of Nigeria

Strengths

Failing

Handiness of market merchandises ( chocolate, nuts etc )

Poor publicities

Significant subscriber to national GDP

Insecurity

Handiness of human capital

Corruptness

Low unit labor cost

Intellectual belongings right protection system

Handiness of favorable demographics

Inadequate research & A ; development

Potential economic growing due to low debt profile of the economic system

Macroeconomic misdirection

Large market size

High production costs

Political stableness and democratic procedure

Poor Infrastructures

Favorable agricultural clime

Absence of trade liberalization

Poor research & A ; development support

Beginning: US Department of States, CIA World Factbook 2009,

Olukoya, 2007

Appendix

SOCIAL INDICATORS OF TURKEY



2006

2007

2008

AREA ( Km2 )

769,604

769,604

769,604

POPULATION ( 1000 individuals ) ( Address-Based Population Register System )

69,421

70,256

71,517

ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH RATE ( In 1000 )

12.1

11.8

13.1

POPULATION DENSITY

94.8

91.7

92.9

Schooling RATIO ( % ) ( * ) ( ** ) ( *** )

2005/2006

2006/2007

2007/2008

Primary school

89.8

90.1

97.4

Secondary instruction

56.6

56.5

58.6

University and other higher instruction

18.9

20.1

21.1



2006

2007

2008

INFANT MORTALITY ( In 1000 )

22.6

21.7

21.0

Average LIFE EXPECTANCY ( Year )

71.5

71.7

71.9

Female

74.0

74.2

74.3

Male

69.1

69.3

69.4

POPULATION PER DOCTOR





LENGTH OF ROAD ( Km )

61,764

61,912

LENGTH OF MOTORWAYS ( Km )

1,987

1,987

RAILWAYS ( Km )

8,697

8,697

AUTOMOBILE ( Per 1000 individuals )

84.8

92

TELEPHONE ( Per 1000 individuals )

258

258

Television SETS ( Per 1000 individuals )





ANNUAL CONSUMPTION OF ELECTRICITY ( Per capita/Kwh )

1,936

2,198

2,264

Beginning: TSI, Ministry of National Education

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