Macro And Micro Economics Economics Essay
In the part of Crete, a squad of taking rational and academic factors has founded an organisation called “ University of the Mountains ” or “ Mountains University ” . Goal of “ University of the Mountains ” is the sophistication of people by implementing an alternate life direction theoretical account of values and regulations as described in the founding declaration: ( happen the full declaration in Appendix I )
“ I”I?I±I?I®I?I…I?I· I I„IY ”
Partss of the establishing declaration of “ University of the Mountains ” can be explained through the prism of most modern scientific theories get downing from Karl Heinrich Marx where he argued that capitalist economy, like old socioeconomic systems, would necessarily bring forth internal tensenesss which would take to its devastation.
( Baird, Forrest E. ; Walter Kaufmann ( 2008 ) . From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6 )
Another dominant theory is that of John Maynard Keynes where he introduced the thought that later were known as Keynesian Theory, where he explains how the partial redistribution of money will hold as a consequence the equilibrium of a market.
( John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money 1936 )
These two pylons determined the scientific idea of twentieth century which approached the phenomenon of growing of societal constructions via the economic system.
Below are formulated more analytic direction patterns of the entire phenomenon.
1. Interpreting the Establishing Declaration of “ University of the Mountains ” .
A«I?II?I· I?I?I±I?I®I?I…I?I·I‚ IˆI?I… I?I‡IµI„I?I¶I?I?I„I±I? I?Iµ I„I?I‚ I?IµI‰I?I?IµI‚A»
( I?I„I± IµI»I»I·I?I?I?I¬ I?I±I? I?I„I±I? II‡I‰ I„I? I±I?I?I»I?I?I? I?IµI?I?IµI?I? I„I± I†I„I?I¬I‡I?I‰ )
Core elements of the macro-economic theories of Karl Heinrich Marx and John Maynard Keynes can be found in the founding declaration every bit good as newest theories.
Karl Marx economical theories ( 1 I?IµI»I?I?I± )
Classical economic system theory ( 1 I?IµI»I?I?I± )
Keynesian Theory ( 1 I?IµI»I?I?I± )
Newest Theories ( 2 I?IµI»I?I?I± I?I±I? I?I? 4 )
The Aggregate Market ( AS-AD ) macroeconomic theoretical account is a synthesis between Classical economic sciences and Keynesian economic sciences that explains monetary value degree and end product through the relationship of aggregative demand and aggregative supply.
IS-LM Analysis: This theory is a more advanced version of Keynesian economic sciences that demonstrates the relationship between involvement rates and existent end product in the goods and services market and the money market. It represents a measure along the manner between the Keynesian economic sciences and the development of sum market ( AS-AD ) analysis.
Monetarism: this theory places the measure of money that circulates around the economic system at the centre of macroeconomic instability. Many of the cardinal characteristics of Monetarism are incorporated in by IS-LM analysis and sum market ( AS-AD ) analysis.
New Classical Economics contends that people have rational outlooks about the effects of authorities policies, which so negates the impact of the policies. As such, like Classical economic sciences, the primary deduction is the economic system maintains full employment without the demand for authorities intercession.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.amosweb.com/cgi-bin/awb_nav.pl? s=wpd & A ; c=dsp & A ; k=macroeconomic+theories
2. E.U. Practices
2.1. Exclusion of the Mountains
The European Union has certain precedences and a instead specific policy. Having a fiscal envelop amounting to 1/3 of the EU budget, this policy is chiefly based on the rule of solidarity and is intended to cut down economic, societal and territorial disparities between the Member States and their 268 parts.
Several European analyses are sketching the fact that societal exclusion is concentrated in the most developing countries and harmonizing to the EU papers “ The Role of Cohesion Policy in the Integration of Vulnerable Communities and Groups ” , it is necessary to place and acknowledge the chief jobs in order to get by with territorial exclusion rooted in micro-territorial development.
Shift from poorness to exclusion. Peoples are confronting jobs through which poorness deepens and it takes up the signifier of exclusion and increasing segregation.
Exclusion has a strong spacial character. Largely appears spatially and is inter-related with territorial exclusion, hence entree all vulnerable groups can barely happen work and most services to them are at the lowest possible degree.
The phenomenon appears on micro-regional degree. The societal and economic crises countries are largely emerging in peripheral intra-regional countries or in dawdling behind micro-regions.
Segregation besides in rural countries. Segregation procedures are clearly more seeable in the metropoliss than in the surrounding less inhabited countries. The state of affairs in the rural countries affected is really even worse.
The job is hidden: Missing instruments. The territorial exclusion is neither sufficiently covered by European statistics, nor by policy aims and instruments.
Intra-regional societal and geographical fringes. The outstanding societal and economic indexs of the big and middle-sized metropoliss is responsible for serious spreads created between the dynamic urban countries and those countries excluded from the societal and economic development procedures.
Integrated attack is needed to undertake the job on territorial degree. There is a demand for a micro-regional based attack concentrating on intra-regional disparities and on the most sensitive countries.
2.1.2. Intra-regional territorial exclusion
The deficit of equal chances, the concentration of societal struggles can happen in several state of affairss. All these urban jobs are good known to new member provinces.
The most developing countries are at a hazard of territorial exclusion
Chiefly spacial and location causes are the basic grounds which are straight connected to the undermentioned factors:
Handiness of workplaces
Distance of metropolis centres
The hapless conveyance substructure or its comparative high outgo
Internal characteristics of the country
Lack or presence of successfully runing entrepreneurships
Low employment rate
Low rate of making
Human resources ( in footings of wellness, making, wellbeing )
The province of the built environment
Tensions between the different societal groups, racism and segregation
Lack and quality of public services
Territorial exclusion is non the lone job. Nevertheless, Territorial exclusion has the undermentioned familial types coming from territorial characteristics frequently mixed-up:
Area with peripheral location
Area on which excluded societal groups, minorities are concentrated
Area of struggles as a consequence of economic structural transmutation
Larger territorial units hide the jobs of excluded districts. One of the chief jobs in the deficiency of visibleness is underdevelopment in all these districts
The territorial concentration of vulnerable groups on the parts ‘ fringes. The deficiency of substructure in the ex-eastern Europe is one of the chief factors of deficiency of resources and development in this portion of Europe / the European Union.
Territorial exclusion is beyond the societal jobs. Poverty being fundamentally a consequence of deficient income, territorial exclusion goes beyond this, since those populating in unintegrated colonies and countries loose accordingly a batch more of chances:
Having really limited entree to substructure and services.
The cultural differences – are in add-on to these rural jobs.
Finally, vulnerable groups are being excluded from the positive spill-over of socio-economic development to be every bit good excluded from decision-making procedures.
Limited territorial informations aggregation and processing in the European research. Social jobs are non seeable plenty through the European statistics. In order to specifically measure all these jobs a elaborate assessment of each such rural country should be made.
The indexs which can be applied territorially are as follows:
Long-run unemployment rate
Hazard of poorness
Proportion of those holding maximal primary school making
Poverty and exclusion can be tackled potentially with a specific assessment of each and every rural country within the late incorporate Countries in the European Union.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2004_2009/documents/dt/707/707790/707790en.pdf
2.2 I I?I¬I?I?I?I· I±I?I¬IˆI„I…I?I·
I I?I¬I?I?I?IµI‚ I”I·I?I?I?I?IµI‚ I?I…I?I?I¬I?IµI?I‚ ( I I”I? ) – II?I± I?I?I‡I…I?I? IµI?I?I±I»IµI?I? IˆI?I?IZI?I·I?I·I‚ I„I·I‚ I I?I¬I?I?I?I·I‚ I‘I?I¬IˆI„I…I?I·I‚
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ypeka.gr/Default.aspx? tabid=533
2.3. Development of Human Mobility
Nerve pathwaies to Opportunity: Get the better ofing Barriers to Human Mobility
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ypoian.gr/ ? p=36
hypertext transfer protocol: //wagner.nyu.edu/podcasts/podcastDetail.php? id=126
hypertext transfer protocol: //hdr.undp.org/en/nhdr/events/archive/title,18920, en.html
hypertext transfer protocol: //hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Overview.pdf
hypertext transfer protocol: //hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.rc.uoi.gr/Files_downloads/Ekdiloseis/pened2003/progr_kinhtikothtas.ppt
2.4. I†I…I»IµI‚ IˆI?IµI…I?I±I„I?I?II‚ I±I?I?IµI‚
Peer to Peer Social Processes
Peer to peer societal procedures are bottom-up procedures whereby agents in a distributed web can freely prosecute in common chases, without external coercion.
Despite these cautions, we have here a singular societal moral force, which is based both on voluntary engagement in the creative activity ofA common goods, which are made universally available to all.
P2P societal procedures more exactly engender:
equal production: wherever a group of equals decided to prosecute in the production of a common resource
equal administration: the agencies they choose to regulate themselves while they engage in such chase
equal belongings: the institutional and legal model they choose to guard against the private appropriation of this common work ; this normally takes the signifier of non-exclusionary signifiers of cosmopolitan common belongings, as defined through the General Public License, some signifiers of the Creative Commons licences, or similar derived functions
These new belongings signifiers have at least three features:
they are aimed against the private appropriation of the normally created value
they are aimed at making the widest possible use, i.e. they are cosmopolitan common belongings governments
they keep the sovereignty with the person
The conditions for equal production to emerge are basically: copiousness and distribution.
Abundance refers to the copiousness of mind or excess creativeness, to the capacity to ain agencies of production with similar extra capacity. Distribution is the handiness of such abundant resources in powdered implements ; A Yochai Benkler has called modularity or coarseness. Again we could speak about the distribution of mind, of the production substructure, ofA fiscal capital.
Peer production, administration and belongings are more productive economically, politically, and in footings of distribution, than their governmental and for-profit opposite numbers, because they filter out all the less productive signifiers of motive and cooperation, and retain merely passionate production and intrinsic motive.
hypertext transfer protocol: //p2pfoundation.net/ % CE % 9F % CE % B9_ % CE % A0 % CE % BF % CE % BB % CE % B9 % CF % 84 % CE % B9 % CE % BA % CE % AD % CF % 82_ % CE % 95 % CF % 80 % CE % B9 % CF % 80 % CF % 84 % CF % 8E % CF % 83 % CE % B5 % CE % B9 % CF % 82_ % CF % 84 % CE % B7 % CF % 82_ % CE % 9F % CE % BC % CF % 8C % CF % 84 % CE % B9 % CE % BC % CE % B7 % CF % 82_ % CE % 95 % CF % 80 % CE % B1 % CE % BD % CE % AC % CF % 83 % CF % 84 % CE % B1 % CF % 83 % CE % B7 % CF % 82
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.masternewmedia.org/information_access/p2p-peer-to-peer-economy/peer — to-peer-governance-production-property-part-1-Michel-Bauwens-20071020.htm
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.masternewmedia.org/information_access/p2p-peer-to-peer-economy/peer — to-peer-governance-production-property-part-2-Michel-Bauwens-20071020.htm
I‘I?I¬IˆI„I…I?I· I„I‰I? I¬I…I»I‰I?/IˆI?IµI…I?I±I„I?I?IZI? I±I?I?IZI? IˆI?I… I±I…I„I? I?I± I?I±I„I±I„IµI?I?IµI? I?I„I·I? I±I?I¬IˆI„I…I?I· I„I?I… IµI…I¶I‰I?I?I?I?I? I?I?I?I„I?I?I… I?I?I± I„I·I? I?I±I„I¬I?I?I?I?I· I„I‰I? I±IˆI?I?I»IµI?I?I?IZI? .
I¤II‡I?I· I?I±I? I±I?I¬IˆI„I…I?I·
2.5. I”I?I±I‡IµI?I?I?I?I· I„I‰I? I…I?I¬I„I?I?I‰I? IˆI?I?I‰I?
EU Water Management
I”I?I±I‡IµI?I?I?I?I· I„I‰I? I?I?I¬I„I?I?I‰I? IˆI?I?I‰I? I?I„I· IsI?I®I„I·
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.rethimno.gr/el/nature/article.php? n=878
2.6. I‘IµI?I†I?I?I?I‚ I±I?I¬IˆI„I…I?I·
I‘I•I™I¦IYI?IYI? I‘I?I‘I I¤I?IzI- : I‘I I‘I?I¤I-I?I- I?I¤I‘ I I‘I“IsIYI?I?I™I‘ I I?IYI’I›I-I?I‘I¤I‘ I¤IYI? I I›I‘I?I-I¤I- ,
I?I…I?I‡I?I?I?I?I?I? I I±I?I¬I?IµI?I?I?I± : I- I?I?I‰I„I?I± I±I…I?I¬I?IµI? I„I?I? “ IˆI?I¬I?I?I?I? ” I?I„I?I‡I? I?I„I? 80 % II‰I‚ I„I? 2020
hypertext transfer protocol: //europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/sustainable_development/index_en.htm
3. Globally applicable illustrations
3.1. The “ Bank of the Poor ”
Muhammad Yunus, laminitis of Grameen Bank, the “ Bank of the Poor ” , is a Bangladeshi banker, economic expert and Nobel Peace Prize receiver for his services of societal and economical development in developing states.
Grameen Bank is an organisation that gives loans and merely to the hapless of under-developing and developing states. The whole thought is based on a conversation that Muhammad Yunus had with a adult female that makes bamboo chairs, who in order to by the natural stuffs needed she had to borrow weakly little sums money since there were n’t any alternate manner of borrowing at that clip.
Having that conversation in head, at 1976 Yunus has started borrowing little sums of money with really low involvement rates to the people of nearby small towns. Three old ages subsequently holding the support of some Bankss has started a pilot plan where subsequently became the Grameen Bank.
Nowadays employees of the bank are sing nearby small towns, holding conversation with people explicating the intent of the bank in order to construct a better and more understanding relationship.
U.N. provokes western Bankss to borrow more money to similar micro-credit organisations and World Bank is one of the most of import protagonists of Grameen Bank.
3.2. I¤I? I±I?I±I?I·I?I±ISI?I? IˆI?I?I·I?I?I?I?IµI?I? I?I„I·I? I?I?I±I‡IµI?I?I?I?I· I„I?I… I±I?I?I?I‰IˆI?I?I?I… I?I…I?I±I?I?I?I?I? I„I‰I? I±IˆI?I?I»IµI?I?I?II?I‰I? I?I?IµI?I?IZI? I?I?I?I‰I?
3.3. I- I?I?I±I‡IµI?I?I?I?I· I?Iµ IµI†I±I?I?I?I?II‚ I?I±I?I?I?I‰I? I±I?I?I?I„I?I…I?I?I?I?I?I? I„I‰I? I±IˆI?I?I»IµI?I?I?II?I‰I? IˆIµI?I?I?I‡IZI?
hypertext transfer protocol: //news.in.gr/culhttp: //www.tovima.gr/default.asp? pid=46 & A ; ct=87 & A ; artid=185000 & A ; dt=30/05/2007ture/article/ ? aid=226084
3.4. I‘IµI?I†I?I?I?I‚ I±I?I¬IˆI„I…I?I·
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ecocrete.gr/index.php? option=com_content & A ; task=view & A ; id=737 & A ; Itemid=82
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.diktioaigaiou.gr/
hypertext transfer protocol: //europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/sustainable_development/index_el.htm
3.5. Open Educational Resources ( OER )
hypertext transfer protocol: //academicearth.org/
Academic Earth is a web site which offers free online picture lectures from universities such as UC Berkeley, UCLA, Harvard, MIT, Princeton, Stanford, and Yale in a assortment of topics.
hypertext transfer protocol: //openlearn.open.ac.uk/
OpenLearn is the UK Open University ‘s part to the Open Educational Resources undertaking.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/education
Content from 300 colleges and university
Es, crossing 10 states and seven linguistic communications with over 65,000 pictures including 350 full classs from taking universities, including MIT, Stanford, UC Berkeley, UCLA, Yale andA A IIT/IISc.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.apple.com/education/itunes-u/
600 university spouses and 250,000 free talks, pictures, movies, and other resources.
hypertext transfer protocol: //ocp.hul.harvard.edu/
Harvard University became the first US University with an Open Access Mandate.
4. I¤I? I I±I?IµIˆI?I?I„I®I?I?I? I„I‰I? IYI?II‰I?
( I IµI?I?I?I?I±I†I® I„I‰I? I?I?I¬I?IµI‰I? I„I?I… I I„IY I?I±I? I?I?I?I?IµI?I® I„I?I… I?Iµ I„I± IˆI?I?I±I?I±I†IµI?I?II?I„I± ) .
I?I…I?IˆIµI?I¬I?I?I±I„I± . IsI±I„I¬ IˆI?I?I„I?I?I·I?I· 2 I?IµI»I?I?IµI‚ .
? ? ? I•I†I±I?I?I?I?I® I„I·I‚ I?I?I?I?I?-I?I?I?I?I?I?I?I?I±I‚ I„I? I I¤IY I?Iµ IµI?I?I?I?I? IµIˆI?IˆIµI?I? . Michael Herzfield ( I?I±I»I±I?I?I?I± I® I¤I±I‹I»I¬I?I?I· )