Key Issues And Trends Within Industry Economics Essay

Real estate is “ Property consisting of land and the edifices on it, along with its natural resources such as harvests, minerals, or H2O ; immoveable belongings of this nature ; an involvement vested in this ; ( besides ) an point of existent belongings ; ( more by and large ) edifices or lodging in general. Besides: the concern of existent estate ; the profession of purchasing, merchandising, or leasing land, edifices or lodging. ”

With the development of private belongings ownership, existent estate has become a major country of concern, normally referred to as commercial existent estate. Buying existent estate requires a important investing, and each package of land has alone features, so the existent estate industry has evolved into several distinguishable Fieldss. Specialists are frequently called on to measure existent estate and facilitate minutess. Some sorts of existent estate concerns include:

Appraisal: Professional rating services.

Brokerages: A go-between who charges a fee to ease a existent estate dealing between the two parties.

Development: Improving land for usage by adding or replacing edifices

Net leasing

Property direction: Pull offing a belongings for its proprietor ( s )

Real estate selling: Pull offing the gross revenues side of the belongings concern

Real estate investment: Pull offing the investing of existent estate

Resettlement services: Relocating people or concern to a different state

Corporate Real Estate: Pull offing the existent estate held by a corporation to back up its nucleus business-unlike pull offing the existent estate held by an investor to bring forth income

Within each field, a concern may specialise in a peculiar type of existent estate, such as residential, commercial, or industrial belongings. In add-on, about all building concern efficaciously has a connexion to existent estate.

“ Internet existent estate ” is a term coined by the cyberspace investing community associating to ownership of sphere names and the similarities between high quality cyberspace sphere names and real-world, premier existent estate.

Introduction of Real Estate Industry:

The Indian economic system has witnessed robust growing in the last few old ages and is expected to be one of the fastest turning economic systems in the coming old ages. Demand for commercial belongings is being driven by India ‘s economic growing. Real estate in India contributes about 5 per cent to India ‘s gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) . The entire gross generated from the existent estate sector in 2010-11 stood at US $ 66.8 billion.

Demand is expected to turn at a compound one-year growing rate ( CAGR ) of 19 per cent between 2010 and 2014, with tier I metropolitan metropoliss projected to account for approximately 40 per cent of this. Turning substructure demands from sectors such as instruction, health care and touristry are besides supplying chances in the existent estate sector.

Urban population has been increasing and is expected to traverse 590 million by 2030.Urbanisation and increasing household income are some of the major factors that influence demand for residential existent estate and growing in the retail sector.

Market Size

The Indian existent estate market size is expected to touch US $ 180 billion by 2020.

Demand for residential, commercial and retail existent estate is lifting throughout India, accompanied by increased demand for hotel adjustment and improved substructure. Growth chances and monetary value stableness of smaller metropoliss are pulling big existent estate developers in such metropoliss in the recent yesteryear, harmonizing to a study titled ‘Real ( I ) ty Following: Beyond the Top 10 Cities of India ‘ , released by Crisil. The study estimates that the sale of new residential flats in 10 such smaller metropoliss are at around US $ 4 billion in 2012.


Non-resident Indians ( NRIs ) are looking frontward for investing in Indian existent estate with the dollar appreciating in value compared to the rupee in the recent times. Foreign direct investing ( FDI ) inflows in existent estate in 2011-12 ( April-January ) stood at Rs 2,750 crore ( US $ 499.59 million ) . In fact, FDI in the sector is expected to increase to US $ 25 billion in the following 10 old ages, as per a latest industry organic structure study.

Construction development sector ( including townships, lodging, built-up substructure ) has attracted a cumulative FDI worth US $ 21.1 billion from April 2000 to June 2012. FDI flows into the sector for the period April-June 2012-13 stood at US $ 348 million, harmonizing to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion ( DIPP ) .

India needs to put US $ 1.2 trillion over following 20 old ages to overhaul urban substructure and maintain gait with the turning urbanisation, as per a study released by McKinsey Global Institute ( MGI ) -India ‘s urban waking up.

Indian existent estate emerged as the popular sector for private equity ( PE ) financess, puting around US $ 1,700 million in this sector during 2011. PE in existent estate undertakings will bring considerable returns by following twelvemonth ( 2013 ) , harmonizing to Vikram Hosangady, Partner, KPMG

Some of the major investings in the Indian existent estate sector are:

Realty house Avalon Group to put Rs 200 crore ( US $ 36.32 million ) to develop a group lodging undertaking at Bhiwadi in Rajasthan. The company would develop 800 lodging units in the 12-acre undertaking ‘Avalon Regal Court ‘

Canada-based NRI billionaire Bob Dhillon is sing puting up to US $ 100 million ( about Rs 540 crore ) in the Indian existent estate market and is be aftering to near the Haryana Government for developing a township near Chandigarh

Sahara India has set up a building joint venture with 110-year-old American existent estate company Turner Construction Co, a subordinate of German building group Hochtief, and the Acropolis Capital Group, a particular state of affairs investing and development house. The JV Company will construct incorporate townships called Sahara City Homes and other Sahara India undertakings in India worth US $ 25 billion over the following 20 old ages

Berggruen Hotels, a mid-market concern hotel concatenation funded by US-based Berggruen Holdings, plans to duplicate its room stock list and invest at least Rs 450 crore ( US $ 81.72 million ) in new undertakings across the state. The company operates under the trade name Keys Hotels and aims to add 2,300 suites over the following 18-24 months

Kotak Realty Fund, the existent estate private equity fund of Kotak Mahindra Group, has entered into a joint venture with Chennai-based Akshaya Homes for building of residential units on a 20-acre secret plan of Chennai ‘s Old Mahabalipuram route.

Government Enterprises

The Government of India has allowed FDI up to 100 per cent under the automatic path in townships, lodging, built-up substructure and building development undertakings to increase investing, bring forth economic activity, create new employment chances and add to the available lodging stock and built-up substructure.

The Union Budget 2012-13 gives major push on speed uping the gait of investing in substructure, as this is critical for prolonging and speed uping an overall growing. Attempts to pull private investing into substructure through the Public-Private Partnership ( PPP ) path have met with considerable success at both Central Government and State Government degrees.

In the Union Budget 2012-13, Rs 10,000 crore ( US $ 1.82 billion ) is allocated for the development of National Highways. In the following five old ages, the entire investings in the existent estate will be US $ 1 trillion.

Government of Gujarat plans to construct a 600-hectare township near the proposed Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. ‘s ( MSIL ) fabricating mill in Hansalpur near Mehsana. The cost of development is estimated to be about Rs 80 hundred thousand ( US $ 145301 ) to Rs 1 crore ( US $ 181672 ) per hectare.

Road Ahead

Real estate plays an of import function in the Indian economic system. This sector happens to be the 2nd largest employer after agribusiness and is expected to turn at the rate of 30 per cent over the following decennary.

The existent estate sector in India is ready to take a large spring in the coming old ages. Since 2010, the residential sector has been on a strong growing flight and with increasing urbanisation the impulse is expected to go on. Strong demographic mix and increasing salary degrees will be the cardinal triggers for growing of the residential market in 2012.

Emergence of atomic households and turning urbanisation has given rise to several townships that are developed to take attention of the aged. With a figure of senior citizen lodging undertakings been planned, the section is expected to turn significantly in the hereafter.

Addition in the figure of tourers has resulted in demand for service flats. This demand is likely to be on uptrend and nowadayss chances for the unorganised sector. The figure of hotel beds in the state is expected to increase to 461,000 by 2015 from the current capacity of 235,000.

Exchange Rate Used: INR 1 = US $ 0.0181 as on November 29, 2012

Top Developers of DELHI-NCR

Truly, the existent estate builders in NCR have urbanized the National Capital Region ( NCR ) apt to take in Delhi, Faridabad, Noida, Greater Noida and Gurgaon as the premier metropoliss. Surely, the builders like DLF, BPTP, Unitech, Tata Housing, Emaar MGF and many others have offered some milestone constructions in the past few old ages in Delhi/NCR. Here, Delhi from a conventional capital metropolis has come changed to a first metropolis with international criterion builder belongingss such as DLF Capital Greens Phase-I, II & A ; III, DLF Kings Court and etc.

Whereas, Gurgaon from an undersized metropolis on the fringe of Delhi at nowadays has been developed by the elephantine real property developers into the most superior residential countries and every bit good as the major commercial developments e.g. , IT companies and MNCs, the developers in Faridabad have changed this industrial township into a modern twenty-four hours metropolis complete with elegant office composites, sprawling shopping promenades and posh retail markets with major retail trade names to host. As a replacement to the inundated Delhi existent estate market, metropoliss like Noida, Greater Noida, Sonipat and Kundli were developed that became the official resort areas for all builders and developers in India, exhaustively.

Introduction OF THE COMPANY

DLF Limited ( Delhi Land & A ; Finance ) ( BSE: A 532868, NSE: A DLF ) is the largest commercial existent estate developer in India. It was founded by Raghuvendra Singh in 1946 and is based in New Delhi, India. [ 1 ] DLF developed residential settlements in Delhi such as Shivaji Park ( their first development ) , Rajouri Garden, Krishna Nagar, South Extension, Greater Kailash, Kailash Colony, and Hauz Khas. DLF builds residential, office, and retail belongingss.

With the transition of Delhi Development Act in 1957, the local authorities assumed control of existent estate development in Delhi and banned private existent estate developers. As a consequence DLF began geting land at comparatively low cost outside the country controlled by the Delhi Development Authority, in the territory of Gurgaon, in the next province of Haryana. In the mid-1970s, the company started developing their DLF City undertaking at Gurgaon. Its programs include hotels, substructure and particular economic zones-related development undertakings. [ 2 ]

The company is headed by Indian billionaire Kushal Pal Singh. Kushal Pal Singh, harmonizing to the Forbes listing of richest billionaires in 2009, was the 98th richest adult male in the universe and the universe ‘s richest belongings developer. The company ‘s US $ 2 billion IPO in July, 2007 was India ‘s biggest Initial public offering in history. [ 3 ] In its first one-fourth consequences for the period stoping 30 June 2007, the company reported a turnover of Rs. 3,120.98 Crore and net incomes after revenue enhancements of Rs. 1,515.48 Crore.


The DLF Group was founded in 1946. We developed some of the first residential settlements in Delhi such as Krishna Nagar in East Delhi, which was completed in 1949. Since so we have been responsible for the development of many of Delhi ‘s other good known urban settlements, including South Extension, Greater Kailash, Kailash Colony and Hauz Khas.

Following the transition of the Delhi Development Act in 1957, the province assumed control of existent estate development activities in Delhi, which resulted in limitations on private existent estate settlement development. We hence commenced geting land at comparatively low cost outside the country controlled by the Delhi Development Authority, peculiarly in the territory of Gurgaon in the next province of Haryana.

This led to our first landmark existent estate development undertaking – DLF Qutab Enclave, which has now evolved into DLF City. DLF City is spread over 3,000 estates in Gurgaon and is an incorporate township, which includes residential, commercial and retail belongingss in a modern metropolis substructure with schools, infirmaries, hotels and shopping promenades. It besides boasts of the esteemed DLF Golf and Country Club with dark golfing installations.

In the early 1940 to 1950s, Raghuvendra Singh with Makhan Lal Jain gandherwal belong to rohtak, haryana who was Pull offing Director of Delhi Land and Finance Housing and Construction Private Ltd at that clip, procured existent estate around Delhi. The wealth generated was multiplied over the decennaries through investings like Punjabi Bagh, Rajouri Garden, Krishna Nagar, South Extension, Greater Kailash 1 & A ; 2, Kailash Colony, Hauz Khas, and Panchsheel. In the 1970s and 1980s DLF purchased 3,000 estates ( 1,214A hour angle ) of land from husbandmans in Gurgaon for $ 2000 per acre. [ 4 ]

At that clip, the Haryana authorities did non let private companies to develop the land. Old ages subsequently, when Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister, he ensured that the Haryana Government changed the local jurisprudence and allowed private companies to develop land. Gurgaon underwent a private existent estate roar which is go oning to this twenty-four hours. [ 5 ] The roar includes first office edifices, flats, golf classs, shopping promenades, 5-star hotels and a private freeway associating Gurgaon to Delhi Airport. Building No:6 toilet Keells Bpo

In 1985, DLF started developing the 3,000 estates ( 12A km2 ) it had acquired from husbandmans. [ 1 ] In 1999, DLF developed its first A-grade office infinites for rent in Gurgaon. [ 1 ] Recently it has been alleged that DLF gave undue favors to Sonia Gandhi ‘s Son-in-Law Robert Vadra.

Joint ventures

Laing O’Rourke is a UK-based building company that built Dubai International Airport and London ‘s Millennium Tower. It will build all DLF ‘s landmark undertakings. Nakheel of Dubai are partnering with DLF for developing townships in India. WSP Group Plc is besides partnering DLF, supplying direction and consultancy to the built and natural environment. Feedback Ventures is supplying consultancy for faster undertaking executing. DLF has besides teamed up with Hilton Hotels to jointly develop hotels in India.


In 2008, DLF became the rubric patron of the Indian Premier League, a newly-formed Twenty20 cricket conference. DLF paid near to US $ 40 million for the 5-year sponsorship trade.

Nature of Business

DLF ‘s primary concern is development of residential, commercial and retail belongingss. The company has a alone concern theoretical account with net incomes originating from development and leases. Its exposure across concerns, sections and geographicss, mitigates any down-cycles in the market. From developing 22 major settlements in Delhi, DLF is now present across 15 states-24 metropoliss in India.

Development Business

The development concern of DLF includes Homes and Commercial Complexes. The Homes concern caters to 3 sections of the residential market – Super Luxury, Luxury and Premium. The merchandise offering involves a broad scope of merchandises including condominiums, semidetached houses, row houses and flats of changing sizes.

DLF is credited with introducing and open uping the radical construct of developing commercial composites in the locality of residential countries. DLF has successfully launched commercial composites and is in the procedure of taging its presence across assorted locations in India.

The development concern at nowadays has 275 msf of development potency with 48 msf of undertakings under building.

Annuity Business

The rente concern consists of the rental concerns of offices and retail.

With over six decennaries of excellence, DLF is a name synonymous with planetary criterions, new coevals workspaces and life styles. It has the differentiation of developing commercial undertakings and IT parks that are at par with the best in the universe. DLF has become a preferable name with many IT & A ; ITES big leagues and taking Indian and International corporate giants, including GE, IBM, Microsoft, Canon, Citibank, Hewitt, WNS, Bank of America, Cognizant, Infosys, CSC and Symantec, among others.

DLF pioneered the retail revolution in the state and brought about a paradigm displacement in the industry by redefining shopping, diversion and leisure experiences with the launch of City Centre in Gurgaon in 2000. The Retail Malls concern is a major push country for DLF. Currently, DLF is actively making new shopping and amusement infinites all over the state.

The company has land resource of 65 msf for office and retail development, with 7 msf of undertakings under building.

DLF has a strong direction squad running independent concerns, though complementing each other in instances of chances of assorted land usage. DLF ‘s mission is to construct a first existent estate development company with the highest criterions of professionalism, moralss and client service and to thereby lend to and profit from the growing of the Indian economic system.

Vision, Mission and Values

DLF Vision

To lend significantly to constructing the new India and go the universe ‘s most valuable existent estate company.

DLF Mission

To construct first real-estate constructs across six concern lines with the highest criterions of professionalism, moralss, quality and client service.

DLF Values

Sustained attempts to heighten client value and quality

Ethical and professional service

Conformity and regard for all community, environmental and legal demands.

Logo Our Ethos

The pyramid symbol and the mission line ‘Building India ‘ is jointly referred to as the DLF Logo.

The company ‘s name is represented in black capital letters. The font represents the solidness of the endeavor ; emphasizes answerability, duty as being a strong and built-in portion of the Group ‘s ethos.

The pyramid depicts nine smaller pyramids ; each composes itself into a larger pyramid all-encompassing in nature and presentation. The pyramid itself and the constituent pyramids convey coherence, mutuality, support and foundation, to a common intent and to accomplish greater highs.

The words ‘BUILDING INDIA ‘ , is in capitals like the company ‘s name, and at one time conveys DLF ‘s mission and vision. It is an intrinsic contemplation of the Group ‘s committedness and its 60-year heritage.

MARKET Cleavage:

Business organized on perpendicular footing: Homes, Office, Retail, Hotels, etc. , each independent of the other

Same construction is followed non merely at the corporate degree, but flows down to the regional/local degree

DLF, at the corporate degree, plays the function of an collector of concerns where stiff, viing involvements of different SBUs and concerns get aligned, ensuing in amount of parts being worth more than parts

Traveling frontward, DLF plans to monetise subsidiaries/assets to unlock the embedded value

With nucleus concerns making stable operating public presentation, focal point is to sharply rage up new concerns like hotels, substructure, SEZs, etc.

Cardinal focal point on executing of undertakings – with current degrees making a tally rate of 62 msf across concerns ( excepting Hotels )

DLF will look into doing little ‘pure ‘ investings in non-real estate concerns, with mark ROI of more than 20 %

The compensation construction within the mid / senior degree employees allows for engagement in the success of assorted projects/businesses

-Base salary – 30 % with a 70 % variable constituent linked to the KRAs, overall through stock options.

HOMES -market cleavage

Super luxury — big aforethought developments and urban settlements, Gross saless “ By Invite ” , Target monetary value points in surplus of Rs 35,000 per sq foot

Luxury — provide luxury life to a homogeneous community looking for keen life style, Steady demand, increasing monetary values continuously

Mid income-for in-between category, low-cost lodging across the state, high demand in approaching clip

B. OFFICES – market cleavage




Sale: Commercial Complexes ( smaller promenades )

Lease- Large promenades


HILTON JV Business Hotels / Serviced Apartments

Other luxury hotels

AMAN ACQUISITION Part of Luxury Strategy


1. Foray into life insurance / plus direction is mostly an equity investing. In following twosome of old ages, the group would be bring forthing excess hard currency flow, which would be in surplus of fresh investing demands.

2. Investings:

— -A 74:26 JV with Prudential Financial Inc. , US for Life insurance services

— -A 39:61 JV with Prudential Financial Inc. , US for Asset Management services

3. Target Return on invested capital: Over 20 %

4. Tenure: 7-10 old ages

Uniquely positioned in emerging, profitable sections:

DLF has a ample presence across several cardinal metropoliss ( Delhi NCR, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Chandigarh, Goa etc ) and clear market leading place in commercial, retail, and lifestyle/premium flats. These sections are extremely profitable and have important entry barriers. We estimate DLFu2019sA market portion at ~16 % in commercial offices and ~8 % in retail infinite soaking up in India over the following 2 old ages.


Peer Comparison


Market Cap

( Rs. in Cr. )

P/E ( TTM )

( ten )

P/BV ( TTM )

( ten )


( ten )


( % )


( % )


( ten )









JP Associates








Oberoi Realty
















Prestige Estates








Jaypee Infratec.








Godrej Propert.








Sobha Developer.








Phoenix Mills








IRB Infra.Devl.








Sunteck Realty
































Shareholding pattern – DLF Ltd.

Holder ‘s Name

No of Shares

% Share Holding



78.58 %

Foreign Institutions


14.87 %

General Public


3.56 %

Other Companies


1.56 %

N Banks Mutual Fundss


0.69 %



0.33 %

Fiscal Institutions


0.29 %

Foreign NRI


0.11 %

Foreign Industries


0.00 %

Foreign Ocb


0.00 %

Key issues and current tendencies within Industry — –

In the coming twelvemonth, endowment attractive force will be one of the top-most precedences of the existent estate sector. Give the current economic state of affairs, there will be an increasing challenge for companies to pull endowment in the industry every bit good as retain endowment, as a general perceptual experience has developed amongst many that the industry itself is non deserving passing more clip on. Sing the famine of skilled employable endowment, it would be rather a undertaking for these companies to retain and heighten their bing endowment pool.

Global cues and uncertainnesss have lowered the optimism degree of the occupation market, which will do people with specializer accomplishments risk averse. They will non happen it wise plenty to alter an bing occupation in the present scenario. Therefore, this will present a challenge in pulling endowment, taking the companies to fall back to high wage options that will further impact endowment costs for companies.

And so finally, the go oning skill spread due to the quality of instruction and the demand – supply spread will be the ground for companies to endeavor towards bridging the spread through backward integrating plans.

India ‘s largest existent estate company in footings of grosss, net incomes, market capitalisation and developable country with a 62-year path record of sustained growing, client satisfaction and invention.

Robust concern theoretical account with mix of development & A ; rental net incomes

Low hazard due to multiple concerns and sections within concerns, across geographicss

All net incomes enablers in topographic point – high quality / high value “ zoned ” land resource in ace tube & A ; tubes and motivated squads at local degree to put to death undertakings

Businesss ( Commercial, retail & A ; luxury places ) which contribute more than 80 % of our long term value are at stable runing platform

Colossal response to the launch of ‘mid-income places ‘ – strong proof of scheme

Set to alter the cordial reception landscape in India-

– On manner to put up 20,000 concern hotel suites in the following 5 old ages in partnership with Hilton

– Acquisition of sphere expertness & A ; assets with buy-out of Aman Resorts concern

8. Merely developer with the experience of puting up of big township.

9. Demonstrated the legal construction to monetise commercial assets as REIT ‘s in the offshore markets ; naming in the close hereafter.

Demand Forecasting

Demand forecastingA is the activity of gauging the measure of a merchandise or service that consumers will buy. Demand calculating involves techniques including both informal methods, such as educated conjectures, and quantitative methods, such as the usage of historical gross revenues informations or current informations fromA trial markets. Demand prediction may be used in makingA pricingA determinations, in measuring future capacity demands, or in doing determinations on whether to come in aA new market. This method is used to gauge future value on the footing of past information. Generally demand prediction is done for either gauging the future gross revenues or gauging future demand of stock list or natural stuff.

Methodology –

DLF estimate assorted factors which impact demand of luxury lodging in any micro market and more so Gurgaon and chose following parametric quantities:

Growth in IT/ITES salary- instead than taking salary in absoluter term, DLF focused on growing as growing signifies more of a disposable income as a individual outgo do non increase so much as per salary growing. Further DLF considered merely IT/ITES sector as no of professionals in higher income bracket are much more in this sector compared to any other industry and therefore additive relationship with the demand.

GDP Growth – GDP growing signifies overall activity in economic system, assurance degree and other overall plangency in the system and since lodging purchase is really strong good thought personal determination, emotional comfort and mentality over certainity of income dramas a really of import function and hence GDP was considered as an of import tool.

Monetary value of Apartments- Like income degree, ability to afford a house in a peculiar section is really of import and hence flat cost was taken as besides one of the factor impacting demand as there is elastic relationship between monetary value and demand of flats.

Home Loan Rate- Since 90 % of sale in NCR part is backed by mortgage, alteration in involvement rate makes the difference between affordability and non affordability and hence its factor which impacts lodging gross revenues drastically.

Absorption of Commercial Space in Gurgaon – Gurgaon despite being an old town has non much of its ain catchment country and consists of chiefly small towns. Though batch of car companies are at that place in locality but they do n’t market for luxury lodging on history of less no of people in senior direction and a different human ecology.

In the supply rich environment, accurate demand estimations will go really of import.

Demand FACTORS –

Robust and sustained growing

Rush in industrial activities

Favorable demographic parametric quantities

Rise in consumerism

Rapid urbanisation


Increasing occupier base

Rise in demand for industrial infinite

Demand for new avenues

Creation demand for new lodging

Supply FACTORS –

Policy and regulative reforms

Positive mentality of planetary investors

Infrastructure support and development by authorities


Entry of domestic and foreign participants

Improved quality of existent estate assets

Large graduated table development.



DLF have a good market portion of approximately 56 %

Brand value

Huge provider base ensures a fixed natural stuff cost

A well established and steadfast base in north India

DLF immense land bank


Little or no undertakings in the other portion of India

Macro economical hazards

No parallel merchandises to back up during times of bad economic system

Real hazard of diminution in belongings monetary values and merely chief concentration in GURGAON.


Expansion of concern in other parts of INDIA.

It can put more in power undertakings like Hydroelectric or weave power.

Investing in natural stuff – Backward Vertical Integration.


Rivals may seek to acquire more market portion through improved techniques.