Factors Affecting Employees In Ready-Made Garment Sector In Bangladesh


For the intent of this survey, the information was extracted from the assorted garment industries that were located in the Chittagong, Bangladesh. Here, we analysed the informations by using simple correlativity and way analysis. In the analysis, it is found that each of the factors [ single related factors ( IRF ) , occupation related factors ( JRF ) ; and organisational related factors ( ORF ) ] has a strong positive correlativity with employees ‘ public presentation ( EP ) . Way analysis disclosed that the direct effects of IRF and ORF are extremely significantly influences on employees ‘ public presentation ( EP ) and in most instances indirect effects of different factors on EP are besides appreciable.

Keywords: Employees ‘ Performance ( EP ) ; Ready-made Garments ( RMGs ) and Path Analysis

JEL Categorizations: M54


Employees are the most valuable plus in any organisation. A successful and extremely productive concern can be achieved by prosecuting them in bettering their public presentation. All employees are non equal in their working and they have different manners of working like some have highest capableness regardless of the inducement but other may hold occasional jumpstart. If they are handled efficaciously, the consequence canbe greater productiveness and increased employee morale. Employees in a house are required to bring forth a entire committedness to coveted criterions of public presentation to accomplish a competitory advantage and improved public presentation for prolonging that competitory advantage at least for a drawn-out period of clip, if non everlastingly. In position of Judge & A ; Ferris ( 1993 ) , possibly there is no more of import human resources system in organisations other than public presentation rating and evaluations of employees ‘ public presentation represent critical determinations that are cardinal influences on a assortment of subsequent human resources actions and results.

Performance means both behavior and consequence. Behaviour emanates from the performing artist and transforms public presentation from abstraction to action. Not merely the instrument for consequence, behavior is besides outcomes in their rights the merchandise of mental and physical attempt applied to task and can be judged apart from the consequence ( Armstrong, 2000 ) . Bates & A ; Holton ( 1995 ) have pointed out that public presentation is a multidimensional concept, the measuring of which varies depending on a assortment of factors ( Armstrong, 2000 ) . A more comprehensive position of public presentation is achieved if it is defined as encompassing both behavior and results ( Armstrong, 2000 ) . Employees ‘ public presentation ( EP ) is an of import factor that contributes to better the results, behavior and traits of the employees. It helps to better the productiveness of the organisation.

Nickols ( 2003 ) and Fort & A ; Voltero ( 2004 ) place similar factor that are closely related and affect supplier public presentation in the workplace. They include a clear ends and occupation outlooks, suited repertory, immediate feedback, accomplishments to execute, cognition of the organisational construction, functional feedback system, sound metal theoretical accounts, sufficient motive through complacency and inducements, supportive or contributing

There are a figure of factors which may be impacting the employees ‘ public presentation. Each employee may hold different consequence from different things at workplace. Their attitude and behavior can play a critical function in their public presentation. Employees do n’t execute in a vacuity. There are a assortment of factors, INF ( which is the combination of different properties i.e. , value, beliefs, critical thought, and expectancy of success and work attitude ) , JRF ( i.e. , demands, self-concept, personal impact accomplishments competency, feedback, inducements and wagess ) and ORF ( i.e. , organisational civilization, norms and criterions used at work, communicating, supervisor and colleague support ) that affects their public presentation. Identifying these factors can assist better enlisting, keeping and organisational consequences. Hence, in effort to make full the research spread the present survey is initiated to place the factor which impacting employees ‘ public presentation in RMGs sector.


The undermentioned aims are taken for the survey:

  1. To place and acknowledge the factors which determine Garments employees ‘ public presentation ;
  2. To place the relationship between factors and employees ‘ public presentation ; and
  3. To propose the employees to heighten their public presentation.

Research design and Methodology

These describe research design, unit of analysis, research attack, trying process, information beginnings, instrumentality, dependability and manner of analysis.

Research design

Exploratory surveies are a valuable agencies of happening out & A ; lsquo ; what is go oning ; to seek new penetrations ; to inquire inquiries and to measure phenomena in a new visible radiation ‘ ( Robson, 2002 ) . It can be linked to the activities of the traveler or explore ( Adams & A ; Schvaneveldt, 1991 ) . Its great advantage is that it is flexible and adaptable to alter ( Naipul, 1989 ) .

Research Approach

As this survey is a concern and direction research, it has a feature of rationalist and interpretivist and besides involves in deductive attack ( Hussey & A ; Hussey, 1997 ; Robson, 1993 ) every bit good as inductive attack ( Easterby-Smith, Thrope & A ; Lowe ( 2002 ) . Uniting these two research attacks in same piece of research is absolutely possible and advantageous for a research.

Unit of measurement of Analysis

Unit of measurement of analysis of the survey were Garments sector attached to Bangladesh Ready-made Garments Association ( BRMGA ) in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Sampling Design

A non-probabilistic sampling method, viz. convenience sampling, was used in pulling samples for this survey. Respondents were from assorted garment industries that were located in the Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Datas Beginnings

The survey was complied with the aid of primary informations and secondary informations. Primary informations were collected direct personal interview with aid of the questionnaire. Entire 60 employees were responded through the questionnaire. Furthermore, the desk survey covered assorted published and unpublished stuffs on the topic.

Questionnaires Development

The questionnaire was administrated to employees of garment industries in Chittagong. A five point graduated table from ne’er ( 1 ) to ever ( 5 ) was adopted to place the variables of employees ‘ public presentation.


Before using statistical tools, proving of the dependability of the graduated table is really much of import as its shows the extent to which a graduated table produces consistent consequence if measurings were made repeatedly. This is done by finding the association in between tonss obtained from different disposals of the graduated table. If the association is high, the graduated table outputs consistent consequence, therefore is dependable. Cronbach ‘s alpha is most widely used method. It may be mentioned that its value varies from 0 to 1 but satisfactory value is required to be more than 0.6 for the graduated table to be dependable ( Malhotra, 2000 ; Cronbach, 1951 ) . In the present survey, we, hence, used Cronbach ‘s alpha graduated table as a step of dependability. Its value was estimated to be a=0.857, If we compare our dependability value with the standard value alpha of 0.6 advocated by Cronbach ( 1951 ) , a more accurate recommendation Nunnally & A ; Bernstein ( 1994 ) or with the standard value of 0.6 as recommendated by Bagozzi and Yi ‘s ( 1988 ) we find that the graduated tables used by us are extremely dependable for informations analysis.

Analytic Method

In the present survey, we analysed our informations by using simple correlativity and way analysis. For the survey, full analysis is done by personal computing machine. A good known statistical bundle i.e. , ‘Statistical Package for Social Sciences ‘ ( SPSS ) 13.0 Version was used in order to analyse the information.

Data analysis and Findingss

Data analysis and findings has been discussed under the undermentioned sub-heads.

Correlation Analysis

Correlation analysis was performed to happen out the relationship along with trial of significance between the undermentioned factors:

  1. IRF: Individual Related Factors
  2. JRF: Job Related Factors
  3. ORF: Organizational Related Factors
  4. EP: Employees ‘ Performance

Table-1 shows that the factors IRF, JRF and ORF are independently positively correlated with EP and besides extremely important at 1 % degrees. Here it is obvious that the maximal correlativity ( r =0.757 ) is existed between ORF and EP, followed by the association ( r =0.614 ) between IRF and EP. That is it should be needed to give the highest accent on organisation related factors for brilliant public presentation of employees. Individual related factors are besides important for fantastic public presentation of ready-made Garments employees. Although there has no so influential nexus ( r =0.564 ) between JRF and EP like as IRF and ORF, it besides indispensable to function the intent of employees ‘ public presentation. Except EP, staying three factors are pair-wise positively correlated with one to another and besides statistically important at P-value 0.000. Among the three factors, the relationship ( r =0.613 ) between IRF and JRF is the highest, followed by the nexus ( r =0.579 ) between ORF and JRF. The value of r=0.503 implies that there has a considerable association between IRF and JRF.

Way Analysis

Way analysis was engaged in this survey to place the direct and indirect effects of independent factors on dependent factor ( EP ) . In theoretical account ( Figure-1 ) six hypothesized way coefficients are considered and among the coefficients one is statistically undistinguished, one is small spot important at 10 % degrees, and staying coefficients are strongly important at 1 % degrees.

There are three pointers in way theoretical account that came from some unknown factors ; the values along with the pointers indicate mistake effects on several factor, which did n’t see in the survey. The overall mistake consequence 0.378 discloses that merely 38 % consequence of factors is ignored due to ineluctable fortunes. Furthermore ( 1-0.378 ) =0.622 =R2 reveals that the considered factors are superior choice for the analysis.

In the tabular array -2, it is seen that the entire effects are the adding of direct and indirect effects. Out of about 62 % entire consequence ( 0.615 ) of IRF on EP, about 21 % is direct consequence ( 0.206 ) , about 7 % and 24 % are indirect effects through JRF ( 0.072 ) and ORF ( 0.237 ) severally, staying 10 % be indirect consequence via the factors JRF every bit good as ORF ( 0.100 ) . From the above treatment IRF has the highest relation with ORF in instance of EP, followed by IRF due to direct consequence on EP. The overall influence of JRF over EP is 0.342, in which direct consequence ( 0.143 ) is non every bit dominant as indirect consequence ( 0.199 ) through ORF. Here it is doubtless true that ORF is a good quality secondary factor to pull strings employees ‘ public presentation. The direct consequence ( 0.549 ) of ORF over EP is the uppermost which itself is the entire consequence. Hence it is clear that ORF is the cardinal factor in instance of the review of employees ‘ public presentation in Ready-made Garments ( RMGs ) sector.


From the correlativity matrix, the highest positive value of correlativity between ORF and EP clarify that the governments of garments sector is required to give chief focal point on ORF for acquiring fabulous employees ‘ public presentation. The maximal mean point ( 3.5833 ) of ORF besides discloses the indistinguishable decision. A strong positive relation between IRF and EP spell out garment industries can non disregard employees ‘ single factors to accomplish satisfactory public presentation. The minimal standard divergence ( 0.54528 ) represents that properties within single related factors has a close connexion. So if any one of the properties in IRF is neglected, employees ‘ public presentation will be badly hampered. Sing the coefficients of correlativity of FP with other factors, JRF is the concluding factor harmonizing to the precedence footing but employees can non deny it due to statistically important association with EP. A powerful nexus between ORF and IRF says that an employee do non apart himself from organisation and vice-versa. Almost alike statement can pull in instance of relationship between the braces ORF and JRF, JRF and IRF.

Like correlativity matrix, way analysis besides declares that the maximal single ( direct ) consequence is on EP from ORF. Therefore it is obvious that without ORF employees ‘ public presentation will be lower than the below norm. IRF has the 2nd maximal direct consequence over EP and it besides indirectly influences to EP through other factors ORF and JRF individually and at the same time. To derive more afford of employees, proprietors ought to be flexible to single related factor of workers as it has non merely direct consequence but besides some significant indirect effects on EP. Even though the consequence of JRF on EP is non statistically important, it well operates EP through the factor ORF. Hence employees ‘ public presentation will be better when occupation related factors are considered along with organisation related factors. To accomplish the ceiling economic addition in Ready-made Garments ( RMGs ) sector, choice merchandise must be ensured. Merely employees can supply quality merchandise through their first-class public presentation and for that a good combination of IRF, JRF and ORF is required, which is released by the way tabular array.

Policy Deductions

Although the present survey was confined to place the factors of EP, it may be appropriate to province briefly the policy deductions for the survey. In this context, the undermentioned policy actions may be considered worthwhile.

  1. The organisation should make a supportive organisational clime. Unfortunately the organisations today continue to be extremely formalized with attach toing inflexible, impersonal clime. Therefore the construction should be decentralized with participative decision-making and upward communicating flows.
  2. The direction of the organisation should extinguish or cut down the struggle between employees and administrative officers.
  3. Employees should be allowed to acquire advice from their supervisor through this ; they will right execute their duties and responsibilities.
  4. Organization should hold to spread out the wellness care plans ; supervisor preparation plans and stress decrease workshops.
  5. Organization should manage the jobs and chances, which are common to all employees.
  6. New engineerings should be used to cut down the work overload.
  7. Some sections have crowed work country. In this section extra employees should be engaged to pull off the crowed work.
  8. Motivation for employees should be granted without biased to execute their undertaking.
  9. Develop and maintain personal relationship societal support at work and off from work can assist relieve some of negative effects of emphasis.
  10. Relaxation in assorted signifiers can be thought of ever of giving the organic structure an appropriate factor to retrieve from emphasis.

Direction for Future Study

Several suggestions that fruitful for future research emerged from this present survey. In order to formalize the findings of this survey, instance survey is another interesting attack that can be done by future research. Additionally, the research theoretical account of this survey can be retested in concern organisations, so that the research theoretical account can be generalized to other economic sector.


  1. Adams, G. , Schvaneveldt, J. , Understanding Research Methods, ( 2nd ed. ) , New York: Longman,1991
  2. Armstrong, M. , Performance Management, New York: Kogon Page Publisher, 2000.
  3. Judge, T.A. , Ferris, G.R. Social Context of Performance Evaluation Decisions, Academy of Management, 1993, Vol.36, No.1, pp. 80-105.
  4. Robson, C. Real World Research ( 2nd ed. ) , Oxford: Blackwell,2002.
  5. Naipaul, V.S. A Bend in the South, London: Penguin, 1989.
  6. Nickols. Factors impacting Performance. Distance Consulting, 2003.
  7. Nunnally, J.C. , Bernstein I.H. Psychometric Theory, New York: McGraw-Hill,1994.
  8. Malhotra, N, K..Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation, ( 3rded ) , New Delhi: Pearson Education Asia, India, 2000.
  9. Cronbach, L.J ( 1951 ) . Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of trials, Psychometrika, 1951, Vol. 6, No.3, pp. 297-334.
  10. Bagozzi R.P and Yi Y ( 1988 ) .On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 1988, Vol.16, No.1, pp. 74-95.
  11. Easterby-Smith, M. , Thrope, R. Lowe, A. ( 2002 ) .Management Research: An Introduction, ( 2nd ed. ) , London: Sage,2002.
  12. Fort, A.L. , & A ; Voltero, L.. Factors impacting the public presentation of maternal wellness attention suppliers in America. Human Resource for Health biomedical Central, 2004, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.human-resources-helath.com/content/2/1/8 [ accessed on January 10th,2010 ]
  13. Husse, J. , Hussey, R. ( 1997 ) . Business Research: A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students, Basingstoke, Macmillan Business,1997.