Exceptional increase in international trade over the past few decades

The bulk states trade added on international markets today than of all time old to – both in absolute conditions and as a proportion of their general end product. How can we explicate this exceeding addition in international trade over the past few decennaries? Will the recent rise in oil monetary values change by reversal this tendency of globalisation?

The past provides us with a normal comparing. Constitution in the 19th century, the universe saw a astonishing rise in international trade that came to a crunching halt the advancement during World War I and subsequently on in the aftermath of the Great Depression. This “ first moving ridge of globalisation ” from about 1870 until 1913 led to a grade of international integrating – measured by trade-to-output ratios – which many states merely achieved once more in the mid-1990s.

Taking a comparative position, we put following to the first moving ridge of globalisation from 1870 to 1913 and the 2nd moving ridge after World War II. We besides study the retreat of universe trade during the interwar period from 1921 to 1939. We are interested in the drive forces behind these trade roars and trade flops. Be alterations in planetary end product or alterations in trade costs that explain the growing of international trade?


International trade has been and is today an economic force that has spurred commercialism, promoted engineering and growing, dispersed cultural forms, stimulate geographic expedition and colonisation, and frequent fanned the fires of war.

The history of international trade has gone manus in manus with the development of civilisations. From really ancient times, international trade brought about the exchange of merchandises and natural stuffs between one land or state and another. Although such trade was frequently conducted in swap signifier and was of little volume by today ‘s criterion, this interchange of merchandises was of import in economic and historic development.

International trade in its early beginnings was necessary, non merely because it provided one society with merchandises such as cowries from West Africa to other countries ; international trade besides formed the thought of cultural interchange, therefore merchandising non merely on merchandise, but besides on life styles, imposts and engineering.

In add-on international trade prompted the development of pecuniary system of record maintaining and accounting, and of an full career of commercialism. In fact international trade added in public displeasure towards vigorish ( involvement in surplus of legal rate charged to a borrower for the usage of money ) .

One can province that the economic and political development of the full western universe was spurred and enhance by international trade.

Another distinguishable part of international trade was the strong publicity given to the field of geographic expedition, map devising, and ship building engineering. Early international trade routers ranged over huge sweeps, therefore necessitating progresss in transit to do possible farther hunt for new merchandises and markets.

Let us non bury, of class, that such desire for new trade paths merchandises, and markets was the driving force that launched geographic expeditions taking to the find of the new universe.

Columbus set out, as you can remember, non to settle in a new state, but to detect a new trade path of the Orient. The involvement upon his return to Europe centre non on his histories of wood and dirt, but on the new merchandises available such as baccy, maize, cowries etc.

As international trade progressed and engineering developed, these geographic expeditions were to turn up another country of foreign trade, still of import today. This was the import of natural stuffs by a state and the re-export of finished and manufactured merchandises. As a consequence, non merely living criterions advanced, but national incomes were besides increased.


International trade is exchange of capital, goods, and services crosswise international boundary lines or districts. In other word, to cognize what is go oning in the class of international trade, authoritiess keep path of the minutess among states.

In most states, it represent a important contribute to gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) . While international trade has been present throughout much of history ( refer to Silk Road, Amber Road ) , its economic, societal, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries.

Industrialisation Advanced, transit, globalization, transnational corporation, and outsourcing are all holding a major impact on the the international trade is important to the count nicety of globalization. Without international trade, states would be limited to the limited to the goods and services produced within their ain boundary lines

International trade is in rule non different from domestic trade as the motive and the behaviour of parties involved in a trade do non alter basically irrespective of whether trade is across a boundary line or non. The chief difference is that international trade is usually more dearly-won than domestic trade. The chief ground is that a boundary line typically impose excess costs such as duties, clip costs due to surround holds and costs associated with state differences such as linguistic communication, the legal system or civilization.

The distinction between domestic and international trade is that factors of production such as capital and labor are typically more nomadic within a state than across state s production. Thus international trade is largely controlled to merchandise in goods and services, and merely to a lesser extent to merchandise in capital, labour or other factors of production. Then trade in goods and services can supply a replacement for trade in factors of production.

Alternatively of importing a factor of production, a state can import goods that make demanding usage of the factor of production and are therefore incarnating the several factor. An illustration is the import of labour-intensive goods by the United States from China. Alternatively of importing Chinese labour the United States is importing goods from China that were produced with Chinese labour.


There are many countries in which the importance of trade can be established. Possibly the most critical of these countries concerns economic growing. During the 19th and twentieth centuries, trade has played a prima function in conveying about planetary economic growing. In add-on to its function as an “ engine of growing ” for the universe economic system, international trade has besides played a polar function in conveying about rapid economic growing and development in several states. The nineteenth century was possibly the of import century for ( primary trade good ) export-led growing. Expansion of exports can take to growing through stimulating proficient alteration and investing, or by sloping demand over other sectors.

Expansion of primary trade good exports frequently led to growing in the nineteenth century peculiarly in Sweden, Australia and Canada. In Sweden, growing was propelled by the exportation of lumber and wood merchandises, and in Australia, growing was driven by the exportation of wool, lamb and mouton. In Canada, growing was propelled by the export of wheat. This gave rise to the alleged “ staple theory ” of growing. In pattern, different primary merchandises will hold different effects on economic growing because they differ as respects conditions of supply and demand.


The first theory subdivision of this class contains accounts or grounds that trade takes topographic point between states. The six basic grounds why trade may take topographic point between states are summarized below.

Differences in Technology

Advantageous trade can happen between states if the states differ in their technological abilities to bring forth goods and services. Technology refers to the techniques used to turn resources ( labour, capital, land ) into end products. The footing for trade in the Ricardian Model of Comparative Advantage is differences in engineering.

Differences in Resource Endowments

Advantageous trade can happen between states if the states differ in their gifts of resources. Resource endowments refers to the accomplishments and abilities of a state ‘s work force, the natural resources available within its boundary lines ( minerals, farming area etc. ) , and the edification of its capital stock ( machinery, substructure, communications systems ) . The footing for trade in the Pure Exchange theoretical account and the Heckscher-Ohlin Model is differences in resource gifts.


The uneven distribution of resources around the universe is the 1 of the basic grounds why states began and go on to merchandise with each other.

Favorable climatic conditions and terrain are really of import for agricultural green goodss.The difference in these factors enables some states to turn certain workss and leaves other states with the lone pick to import the green goodss they consume.

Natural resources, some states are the major providers of the certain natural resources because the distribution of natural resources around the universe is slightly hit-or-miss. The in-between East, for illustration, has rich oil militias and is the chief beginning of oil supply to the universe.

Skill workers, some developed states have skilled workers who are able to fabricate sophisticated equipment and machinery. Other states, since they do n’t hold well-trained applied scientists and workers, must import the equipment from these states.

Capital resources, Developing states need to overhaul their industries and economic systems with advanced machinery, equipment and works that they are non able to fabricate because of the deficiency of capital. This has given rise to the demand for developing international trade

Favorable geographic location and conveyance costs,

Insufficient production, some states can non bring forth adequate points they need

degree Celsius ) Economic grounds

In add-on to acquiring the merchandises they need, states besides want to derive economically by merchandising with each other. It is made possible by varied monetary values for the same trade good around the universe, reflecting the differences in the cost of production.

vitamin D ) Differences in Demand

Advantageous trade can happen between states if demands or penchants differ between states. Persons in different states may hold different penchants or demands for assorted merchandises. The Chinese are likely to demand more rice than Americans, even if confronting the same monetary value. Canadians may demand more beer, the Dutch more wooden places, and the Japanese more fish than Americans would, even if they all faced the same monetary values.

vitamin E ) Being of Economies of Scale in Production

The continuance of economic systems of graduated table in production is equal to bring forth advantageous trade between two states. Economies of graduated table refer to a production procedure in which production costs fall as the graduated table of production rises. This quality of production is besides known as “ increasing net incomes to scale. ”

degree Fahrenheit ) Being of Government Policies

Government revenue enhancement and fiscal support plans can be sufficient to bring forth advantages in production of certain merchandises. In these advantageous Trade may lift entirely due to differences in authorities policies across states.



Enhance your domestic fight

Increase gross revenues and net incomes

Derive your planetary market portion

Reduce dependance on bing markets

Exploit international trade engineering

Reduce dependance on bing markets

Exploit international trade engineering

Extend gross revenues potency of bing merchandises

Stabilize seasonal market fluctuations

Enhance potency for enlargement of your concern

Sell extra production capacity

Maintain cost fight in your domestic market


You may necessitate to wait for long-run additions

Hire staff to establish international trading

Modify your merchandise or packaging

Develop new promotional stuff

Incur added administrative costs

Dedicate forces for going

Wait long for payments

Apply for extra funding

Deal with particular licences and ordinances


Since get downing its programme of economic liberalisation and particularly as consequence of its accession to the WTO, China has approved out major trade and trade related reforms. The mean applied MFN duty was reduced from 15.6 % in 2001, merely before China acceded to the WTO to 9.7 % in 2005 the mean MFN responsibility rates for agricultural ( WTO definition ) and non-agricultural merchandises were 15.3 % and 8.8, severally in 2005. The duty is wholly bound rates ; this lends a high grade of predictability to the duty. The edge duty rate mean 10 % in 2005 and is due to fall to 9.9 % by 2010, when China completes public presentation of its current committednesss on bindings. China besides extends bilateral trade penchants under the Bangkok Agreement, to ASEAN states to Pakistan and to the SARs of Hong Kong and Macao. Unilateral penchant ( zero rates of responsibility ) are offered to 39 least developed states for some merchandises

Non- duty steps have besides been falling increasingly as China implements its committednesss under its protocol of Accession. Import quotas every bit good as trading right ( the latter granted to certain measure uping bargainers ) to certain measure uping bargainers were discontinued at the terminal of 2004, while import prohibitions and licensing have been reduced increasingly. The disposal of the import licensing government has besides been simplified. China maintains import prohibitions, mostly of wellness and safety grounds and under international conventions. It besides prohibits imports of certain merchandises merely for processing and re- export intents. Such imports include some agricultural merchandises, minerals, fertilisers, and other used and godforsaken stuffs.

China has taken stairss to simplify its disposal of other boundary line steps, such as criterions, healthful and phytosantary. Measures and eventuality steps. In 2005, 32 % of criterions were based on international criterions as a consequence of a recent reappraisal 44 % of current criterions are to be revised to guarantee their conformance with international criterions, while 11.6 % are to be abolished. The SPS government and SPS review processs for imports remains complex and non really clear a big figure of Torahs and ordinances govern execution in this country.

Under the jurisprudence on authorities procurance, which covers buying by province variety meats and public and societal establishment but non province owned endeavors, procurance is expected to ease the accomplishment of province ends for economic and societal development. Buying penchants besides exist for domestic goods building and services although these may be purchased from aliens under exceeding fortunes. China is an perceiver to the WTOs Government procurance Agreement.

Export barriers, while falling, have non tended to maintain gait with reform to import steps and are used in portion to guarantee stableness in domestic supplies of certain merchandises. The export government, which includes export revenue enhancements, export prohibitions, export licensing, and export quotas, remains complex. Export limitations, including prohibitions and licensing, are maintained, inter alia, to avoid domestic supply deficits and to run into international duties. Prohibitions are besides announced from clip to clip on exports under the processing trade government to deter processing of certain merchandises or to guarantee their supply to domestic industry.


Part A.


Trade facilitation processs, industrialisation, advanced substructure, technological promotion, globalisation, transnational corporations, documental process demands and outsourcing are all holding a major impact on the international trade system. Increasing international trade is important to the continuation of globalisation. Without international trade, states would be uncomplete to the goods and services produced within their ain boundary lines.

II.1. Trade Facilitation

Among the factors leading/contributing to the recent growing in international trade, trade facilitation is the critical issue debated under WTO and other transnational organisations.

It is said to be the critical issue, because it includes all other factors lending to the recent growing of international trade.

It involves harmonisation, standardisation, integrating, synchronism of international trade processs.

trade facilitation in planetary trade

No widely agreed definition. WTO defines it as simplification and standardisation of International Trade Procedures. International Trade Procedures are defined as “ activities, patterns and formalities involved in roll uping, showing, pass oning and treating informations required for motion of goods in International Trade.

II.1.a. Aim

The aim of Trade Facilitation is to cut down cost of making concern by extinguishing unneeded administrative hurdlings.


Poor boundary line processs account for 2 % to 15 % of the entire dealing value. This highlight thriftlessness.

Concept to consumption – goods assembled or manufactured in one state sold in another. Complex – holds if boundary line processs are slow and tidy.

Increased trust on JIT,

Thin Manufacturing,

Short Production Cycles,

Higher carrying costs.

Manufacturing sector growing is backed by efficient logistics concatenation

Cumbersome imposts processs pose a major hindrance to merchandise liberalisation & A ; globalisation – integrating of markets is hard.

Investing determinations based on logistics infrastructure – low cost of flow of goods, FDI conducive ambiance.

Trade Facilitation is of paramount demand. Responsibility rests with Governments to ease trade by making friendly environment. Convenient processs and substructure support. Export optimism demands international norms of efficiency, productiveness & A ; cost.

Traveling goods across state ‘s boundary lines is a critical determiner of a state ‘s fight.

Price & A ; clip: Delivery agenda dependability is critical for companies to cut down costs ( stock list transporting costs ) .

Good administration is indispensable for trade facilitation.


OECD STUDY: The cost of hapless boundary line processs varies between 2 % and 15 % .

UNCTAD REPORT: 20/30 parties ; 40 paperss, 200 informations elements ( most of which is repeated ) .

APEC STUDY: – Addition of 0.26 % of existent GDP to APEC through trade facilitation programme – Economy of 1 % to 2 % of import monetary value.


I ) Direct relationship between trade facilitation & A ; trade flows

two ) At the Centre of trade facilitation is the function of imposts & A ; other commanding organisations

three ) Key issues in trade facilitation are:

Excessive Documentation

Insufficient usage of I.T.

Lack of Transparency

Ill-defined import/export demands

Lack of cooperation among imposts governments


Trade facilitation is comparatively a new issue at WTO. It was foremost discussed at Singapore Ministerial Conference in 1996. Group of Countries friendly to Trade Facilitation ( largely developed universe ) are known as COLORADO group at WTO. India was non favourably disposed to merchandise facilitation at WTO because of ( I ) deficiency of resources and ( two ) eventful legal duties and differences. Trade Facilitation, India felt, should stay a regional, national concern or bilateral issue instead than multi-lateral trade concern.

II.1.f. GATT & A ; WTO

Singapore Ministerial Conference defines trade facilitation as simplification and harmonisation of trade processs. This issue was once more discussed at Doha Ministerial Conference in 2001. Doha Ministerial Declaration referred to GATT Articles in the context of trade facilitation. These Articles are:

Article V – concerning ( I ) freedom of theodolite and ( two ) simplification of processs.

Article VIII – concerning ( I ) fees and charges non for financial intents, ( ad valorem charges non compatible with WTO ) , ( two ) transparence, and ( three ) decrease in certification.

Article X – concerning ( I ) airing of information – publication of regulations, ( two ) right to appeal and judicial reappraisal and ( three ) e-mode/website.

The common characteristics of these Articles evidently referred to the followers:

I ) Transparency in publication of Torahs and processs.

two ) Information airing through just and just disposal or processs.

three ) Right to appeal and judicial reappraisal.

It is clear that Trade Facilitation relates to assortment of activities, viz. , import/export processs, imposts rating, simplification of processs, online handling of paperss, etc. all along the logistics concatenation.

Multilateral organisations that oversee Trade Facilitation include World Customs Organizations, IMF, UNCTAD, OECD, and WTO & A ; World Bank.

Former World Bank President ( JAMES WOLFENSOHN ) said cut downing port/customs theodolite line by one twenty-four hours has the same consequence as cut downing imposts responsibility by 1 % .

A figure of specific understandings that have been negotiated during Uruguay Round and relevant to merchandise facilitation under WTO are:

Customss Valuation Agreement

( Sets out guidelines for imposts rating ) .

Agreement of Rules or Origin

( Principles for original finding in impersonal & A ; crystalline mode ) .

Agreement on Pre-shipment Inspection

( Sets criterions to avoid holds & A ; differences ) .

Agreement on Import Licensing Procedure

( Single window clearance ) .

Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade

( Unnecessary hurdlings to be avoided ) .

Agreement on SPS Measures

( Undesirable obstructions to be avoided ) .


Unshackling of controls

Making an ambiance of trust and transparence

Simplification of Procedures

Bringing down Transaction Cost

Facilitating Technological and Infrastructural Up-gradation.

II.2. Industrialization

The mushrooming of industries all over the universe caused by industrial revolution is another factor lending to the recent growing in international trade. This factor is characterized by mass production, standardized and customized merchandises.


It is a basic duty of the authorities to facilitate/support trade by bettering physical, institutional and practical substructures.

The physical substructures involve: roads, railroads conveyance, sea conveyance, air conveyance, and multimodal conveyance.

Virtual substructure ; this means facilitation through mediators such as, logistic bureaus, insurance companies, and cargo forwarders.

Institutional substructure, this involves universities/colleges, for concern surveies direction.

The betterment of all these sort of substructures in many states contributes/lead to the recent growing in international trade.


The twenty-first century, is the epoch of technological promotion characterized by the stiff competition in E-commerce theoretical account, whereby the international concern focal point has changed significantly.

Technological promotion has been proven to be a critical factor in spread outing the market and enabling business communities to do the most effectual usage of information.

Modernized industries soon are basking economic systems of graduated table due to mass production, standardized and customized merchandises taking to low cost of production and are going competitory in the planetary markets.

Presently, the universe is connected and brought together as a little small town ; this is due to technological betterment.

From this point of position, it is proven that technological promotion is one among the critical factors lending to the recent growing in international trade.

II.5. Globalization

Globalization is integrating in its construct, nowadays the universe is integrated and people are connected. Goods and services are traveling from one point of the Earth to another in few hours. From this statement, we can state that the universe has been turned into a sustainable small town.

As a consequence, globalisation has played a major function in lending rapid growing in planetary trade.


These are international organisations covering with the control of international trade policies and processs.

Multilateral organisations that oversee Trade Facilitation include World Customs Organizations, IMF, UNCTAD, OECD, and WTO & A ; World Bank.


The procedure of documental demands in Export-Import minutess was really cumbrous, this in term of EXIM responsibilities, export-import licence, and planetary criterions licence, etc.

But, due to merchandise facilitation construct, the yearss of treating import goods are going reduced.

The relevant illustration is from Dar es-salaam port, the procedures to clear import goods took three hebdomads to one month in the past old ages. Soon, the mean yearss to clear ladings are 7 to 14 yearss. ( This is due to execution of utilizing new equipments- Cranes machines, and new systems- Automated System of Customs Data-ASYCUDA by TRA ) .

Another illustration is of PERU, this state has 19 ports along the misprint of the Pacific Ocean.

In these ports no effectual imposts processs. Cargo clearance clip bets about 15 to 30 yearss. As consequence, no transparency, no uniformity and consistency.

Due to the accent on documental process by the many-sided organisations ( WTO and World Bank ) , the release times under these ports came down from 15-30days up to 2-3days export-import position ( World Bank surveies on Trade facilitation, 2008 ) .


Part B.



Traditionally trade was regulated through bilateral pacts between two states. For centries under the belief in mercantile system most states had high duties and many limitations on international trade. In the nineteenth century, particularly in the united land, a belief in free trade became paramount. This belief became the dominant thought among western states since so. In the old ages since the Second World War, controversial many-sided pacts like the general understanding on duties and trade ( GATT ) and universe trade organizatioan have attempted to advance free trade while making a globally regulated trade construction. These trade understandings have frequently resulted in discontent and protest with claims of unjust trade that is non good to developing states.

Free trade is normally most strongly supported by the most economically strongly states, though they frequently engage in selective protectionism for those industries which are strategically of import such as the protective duties applied to agriculture by the United States and Europe. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom, Australia and Japan are its greatest advocates. However many other counties ( such as India and Russia ) are progressively going advocators of free trade as they become more economically powerful themselves. As duty degrees fall these is besides an increasing willingness to negociate non duty steps, including foreign direct investing, procurance and facilitation. The latter expressions at the dealing cost associated with meeting trade and imposts processs.

Traditionally agricultural involvements are normally in favour of free trade while fabricating sectors frequently support protectionism. This has changed slightly in recent old ages, in fact, agricultural anterooms, peculiarly in the United States, European and Japan are chiefly responsible for peculiar regulations in the major international trade pacts which allow for more protectionist steps in agribusiness than for most other goods and services.

The ordinance of international trade is done through the World Trade Organization at the planetary degree and through several other regional agreements such as MERCOSUR in South America, the North America Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) between the United States, Canada and Mexico and the European Union between 27 independent provinces. The 2005 Buenos Aires negotiations on the planned constitution of the Free Trade Area of Americans ( FTAA ) failed mostly because of resistance from the populations of Latin America states. Similar understandings such as the Multilateral Agreement on Investment ( MAI ) have besides failed in recent old ages.


Companies making international concern face the same hazards as would usually be apparent in purely domestic minutess. For illustration,

Buyer insolvency ( buyer can non pay ) ;

Non-acceptance ( purchaser rejects goods as different from the agreed upon specifications ) ;

Recognition hazard ( leting the purchaser to take ownership of goods prior to payment ) ;

Regulatory hazard ( e.g. , a alteration in regulations that prevents the dealing ) ;

Intervention ( governmental action to look into a contract being complete ) ;

Political hazard ( alteration in leading interfering with minutess or monetary values ) ; and

Conflict and other unwieldy events.

In add-on, international trade besides faces the hazard of unfavourable exchange rate motions ( and, the possible benefit of favourable motions ) .

Section III.



This essay focuses entirely on the factors lending to the recent growing in International Trade. It has been arranged into three subdivisions ; whereby subdivision I includes the construct of international trade, subdivision II comprises portion A: factors lending to the recent growing in international trade, and portion B: ordinances and hazards in international Trade. Finally, subdivision III includes decision and recommendation comments of the essay.

Through different contexts in this essay, it ‘s proved that International trade Acts of the Apostless as an engine of growing in developing state. There are many countries in which the importance of trade can be established. Possibly the most critical of these countries concerns economic growing. During the 19th and twentieth centuries, trade has played a prima function in conveying about planetary economic growing. In add-on to its function as an “ engine of growing ” for the universe economic system, international trade has besides played a polar function in conveying about rapid economic growing and development in several states. The nineteenth century was possibly the of import century for ( primary trade good ) export-led growing.


The lifting of trade barriers should non be followed by the debut of new 1s ” – should be modified to reflect that, after old ages of market deformations prefering developed states, some signifier of medium-term investment/tariff/subsidy policy will be necessary to enable developing states to construct their productive capacity, run into their nutrient security demands, and generate excesss for international markets.

Similarly the calls for riddance of end product and export subsidies in developed states ‘ agribusiness, and of their trade barriers to developing state fabrication exports are besides positive. However, these committednesss would be strengthened by mention to the demand for concrete policies designed to heighten local productive capacity in developing states. Differentiation should besides be drawn between the riddance of developed state export subsidies and the proposal for export credits to excite substructure investing in developing states.

A Draft should be made to perpetrate UN bureaus to “ guaranting greater policy coherency and better cooperation among UN, its bureaus, the Breton Woods Institutions and the World Trade Organization, every bit good as other many-sided organic structures ” , so as to better supply planetary public goods and consolidate the international fiscal system. It should be strengthened to observe that the primary end of enhanced coherency is “ development, ” as defined and measured by the UN human rights model. Such organisations ( the Breton Woods Institutions and the World Trade Organization ) should function to back up nationally-designed development schemes, instead than sabotaging them.

To stop this, it is hence imperative that witting attempts should be made by authorities to polish the assorted policy steps associating to the assorted macroeconomic variables in order to supply an enabling environment to excite international trade.

III.3. Reference

Anderson, James ; new wave Wincoop, Eric. “ Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle. ” American Economic Review 93 ( 1 ) , March 2003, pp. 170-192.

Anderson, James ; new wave Wincoop, Eric. “ Trade Costs. ” Journal of Economic Literature XLII, September 2004, pp. 691-751.

Hummels, David ; Ishii, Jun ; Yi, Kei-Mu. “ The Nature and Growth of Vertical Specialization in World Trade. ” Journal of International Economics 54, 2001, pp. 75-96.

Jackss, David ; Meissner, Christopher ; Novy, Dennis. “ Trade Costs, 1870-2000. ” American Economic Review 98 ( 2 ) , Papers & A ; Proceedings, May 2008, pp. 529-534.

Jackss, David ; Pendakur, Krishna. “ Global Trade and the Maritime Transport Revolution. ” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 14139, June 2008.

Levinson, Marc. The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. Princeton University Press, 2006.

Novy, Dennis. “ Gravity Redux: Measuring International Trade Costs with Panel Data. ” Working Paper, Warwick University, 2008.

Lolo, Kei-Mu. “ Can Vertical Specialization Explain the Growth of World Trade? ” Journal of Political Economy 111 ( 1 ) , 2003, pp. 52-102.

Milton Iyoha ( 2003 ) Macroeconomic: Theory and Practice, Mindex printing Benin City, Edo State. Pp 142-166

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTD ) .2005, developing states in international trade: trade and development index 2005 united states New York and Geneva, 2005.

WTO studies on “ Trade facilitation ” , 2009.

World Bank Report on “ 21-members of APEC ” , 2009.

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