Dependent In Economic Matters English Language Essay
The universe today is going ever more dependent in economic affairs and instruction and larning English is distributing all over the universe as English is one of the powerful tools to hold entree to the universe cognition and in this manner to the universe engineering. English has ever been the most of import foreign linguistic communication in Albania. The importance of English is seen at the different degrees of the Albanian educational system and English instruction methods have been on the focal point of the Albanian authorities particularly these last old ages, by cultivating a high motive towards pupils to larn English, since pupil ‘s attitude toward an L2 may be an of import factor in easing acquisition. As traditional methods have been widely used from the Albanian instructors, nowadays the accent is being put on the communicative attacks which teach the existent communicating non merely theories about it and instructors are now more equipt to learn communicating affecting non merely grammatical elements but besides of import characteristics of civilization and society which aid in larning an L2. Emphasis is being besides put on the acquisition of vocabulary as one of the most of import parts of larning a 2nd linguistic communication ( L2 ) . There is a great demand for 2nd linguistic communication scholars to hold vocabulary cognition and which schemes, as linguistic communication acquisition would be improved by the correct schemes included in the acquisition procedure, to utilize to assist them in geting this, particularly when it is known that vocabulary is retained over long periods of clip by the pupils.
Vocabulary, grammar and sound system acquisition of a foreign linguistic communication are what comprises the acquisition of a 2nd or foreign linguistic communication and particularly vocabulary dramas a really of import function in larning a 2nd linguistic communication. Equally good as it is one of the elements, that makes up the English linguistic communication. Therefore, the importance of vocabulary instruction and acquisition can non be overemphasized.
So as above mentioned one of the most indispensable factors in larning a foreign linguistic communication is vocabulary which besides forms the biggest portion of cognizing a linguistic communication. Taking into consideration the indispensable function which is given to vocabulary acquisition in foreign or 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, the importance of vocabulary instruction is easy understood as good. Despite the indispensable function of vocabulary in larning a foreign linguistic communication, the precedence given to it in the yesteryear was really small.
Although for most pupils vocabulary is the biggest job the issue of learning vocabulary or how pupils get vocabulary expeditiously and efficaciously is still a controversial issue. Nowadays, a great accent is being put on the communicative activities to be used in the schoolrooms and a batch of workshops have been held in Albania for the instructors in order to promote pupils to talk, because it is more of import that the assimilation of the new information acquired from the pupils be demonstrated in their public presentations of mundane than merely declaim some grammar regulations. For this ground, many instructors are encouraged to alter their instruction manner from the traditional method which is Grammar Translation Method ( GTM ) to communicative attacks. The Grammar Translation Method ( GTM ) , has been greatly used in Albania in learning foreign linguistic communications and its features harmonizing the vocabulary are the memorisation of long lists of new words which are taught from translated equivalents and are learnt through memorisation.
As GTM has been widely used in Albania the focal point has ever been on grammar and small accent is put on vocabulary. This means that interlingual rendition has been used to larn the new words. Students face troubles in how the words are used and what emotions do the words express. This method has generated a great figure of skilled pupils but merely in grammar with a batch of troubles in retrieving new word and accordingly utilizing them in forms and collocations, hence there is no connexion between callback of word significance and usage of word in context. Although vocabulary acquisition and larning prevarications on the attempts of both instructors and pupils. Now as the demand for talking English is increasing pupils need non merely grammar accomplishments but besides talking accomplishments.
Recently instructors are trained and encouraged to utilize a broad assortment of methods in the schoolrooms in order to promote pupils to talk more. What helps more pupils to talk is happening the right word in the context. Communicative Language Teaching ( CLT ) as one of the communicative attacks is on the top list of the different methods used in learning English. This method helps pupils develop the ability to pass on original messages in existent life state of affairss. Interaction plays an of import function in utilizing the new words and retrieving them afterwards. This method is non much used in Albania
A A A figure of research surveies have dealt with lexical jobs, which linguistic communication scholars face in vocabulary acquisition and the research findings have revealed that lexical jobs often interfere with communicating. In fact, communicating interruptions down and the hearer may misconstrue when people do non utilize the right words. Some research surveies have been done to understand which of the two methods Grammar Translation Method and Communicative Language Teaching helps pupils more in larning new words and from these both methods help pupils but chiefly depending on the background of the pupils. The undermentioned inquiry need to be researched: Which of these two methods used in the Albanian context helps Albanian pupils more in larning new words?
This survey is a comparative survey of the two methods GTM and CLT used in learning vocabulary. The end of this research survey is to see which of these two methods works best for pupils in larning new words and retrieving them to detect the possible factors that may forestall Albanian instructors non utilizing CLT and to see the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing these methods.
Significance of the Study
A It is widely accepted that 2nd or foreign linguistic communication scholars who possess good word power or cognition of vocabulary are normally more successful linguistic communication scholars. Simply put, people with big vocabularies are more adept readers than those with limited vocabularies. In fact, there is normally a positive correlativity between one ‘s cognition of vocabulary and his/her degree of linguistic communication proficiency ( Luppescu & A ; Day, 1993 ) .
A batch of research has been conducted in order to measure and compare which of these two methods is more appropriate for pupils but in Albania this is the first clip.
The significance of the thesis is to see which of the two methods of learning vocabulary can assist pupils better in larning vocabulary and besides to supply early and later research surveies on this subject, to assist in better cognizing the consequences of learning vocabulary via Grammar Translation Method or Communicative Language Teaching.
This research has two sorts of advantages, viz. theoretical and practical. The expected consequences of the survey both theoretical and practical are:
1. Theoretical Benefit
a. The consequences can be used as a mention for those who want to carry on a research in vocabulary acquisition.
2. Practical Benefit
a. This survey helps the Albanian instructors and pupils to happen the most effectual and efficient manner of instruction and larning vocabulary.
This chapter provides the literature background of the survey. In this chapter, will be provided different attitudes that research workers have for vocabulary acquisition and acquisition via Grammar Translation Method and Communicative Language Teaching.
The inquiry of which method is most appropriate for learning a 2nd linguistic communication is still under argument. Therefore, foreign linguistic communications are learned and taught in assorted ways. Although none is perfect, some of these methods and attacks are more successful than others. In many schools in Albania, grammar interlingual rendition is still used by many instructors to learn foreign linguistic communications and particularly English.
Although Grammar Translation Method ( GTM ) dates back in the 18th century and it was used in the formal instruction of Latin and Greek, it is still really popular in a batch of states. While the Communicative Approach emerged in the 1970s but it dates back in the sixtiess when Chomsky with its two impressions of ‘competence ‘ and ‘performance ‘ produced a reaction against the audio-lingual method and grammar interlingual rendition method ( Al-Humaidi, 2007 ) . Grammar Translation Method ( GTM ) involves the interlingual rendition of literary texts followed by account in the pupils ‘ native linguistic communication of regulations of grammar. As Corder notes, grammar-translation is “ the most deductive attack ” ( Allen & A ; Corder 1975,13 ) and Richards and Rodgers ( 1986 ) province that, it has no advocators and it may be true to state that the Grammar-Translation Method is still widely practiced. This method was used in order to assist and promote pupils to wish and appreciate literature and really small instruction is done in the mark linguistic communication. However, another research worker Cheng ( 2005 ) argues that Communicative Language Teaching ( CLT ) is the best and most successful method in vocabulary instruction and acquisition.
Brown ( 1984 ) admits that GTM is so widely used because, this method requires few specialised accomplishments on the portion of instructors, because they use their native linguistic communication and so even instructors who are non fluid in English can learn via this method.But it is non merely for this ground that this method has ever been on the top list of the English linguistic communication methods but besides for the pupils. For illustration some Chinese pupils become accustomed to this method in larning English and by and large showed great involvement in linguistic communication constructions and lingual inside informations. Most of them believe “ we would wish to cognize what happens, because if we understand the system, we can utilize English more efficaciously ” ( Harvey, 1985 ) . In Albania exists the same thought to the pupils, they need to cognize lingual inside informations in order to larn a foreign linguistic communication. For them it is easier to pass on in their native linguistic communication and besides the communicating between them and the instructor does non do any lingual job. Furthermore, the use of the native linguistic communication in the schoolrooms makes it impossible for pupils to give up the wont of believing in their native linguistic communication and so interpreting them, when they want to show something in a foreign linguistic communication.
As Ye ( 2007 ) admits pupils who learn English with this method have troubles in pronunciation, and modulation and they have besides troubles to show even the easiest sentences when they are in a foreign state. The pronunciation is really of import in English, because a bad pronunciation may take to misinterpretations. Normally when talking people can utilize simple words and besides simple grammar constructions, but it is impossible to utilize simple pronunciation. The best and the lone manner to hold a good pronunciation is merely by pattern.
In the Grammar Translation Method Richards and Rodgers ( 1986 ) study that the pupil ‘s native linguistic communication is maintained as the mention system in the acquisition of the 2nd linguistic communication. The use of the native linguistic communication in the schoolrooms may assist pupils to understand the right significance of the new words but on the other manus makes it hard for them to cognize the forms, collocations and the sort of look these words have. Besides as a effect of the use of the native linguistic communication “ Vocabulary choice is based entirely on the reading texts used, and words are taught through bilingual word lists, dictionary survey, and memorisation. ” ( Richards and Rodgers, 1986 ) . Furthermore, Ianacone ( 1993 ) argues that vocabulary lists are isolated and insulating every bit far as lists of words are used as a technique for vocabulary acquisition. He says that they are lists constructed in an unreal manner that deficiency context and are incapable of eliciting larning motive. Students should be engaged in thinking word significances because in this manner they are engaged in an active manner and they can make their lists of vocabulary.
So new words are learned through direct interlingual rendition from the native linguistic communication. In fact, both the instructors and pupils of English in Albania often find it convenient to option for interlingual rendition. Teachers normally attempt to explicate a foreign word, phrase or sentence by giving a mother-tongue equivalent. But non ever exact interlingual rendition from one linguistic communication to another is possible. There are legion lexical points in one linguistic communication, which have no equivalent word in another linguistic communication. But about the issue of interlingual rendition Calderado ( 1998 ) provinces, “ developing such accomplishments in interlingual rendition, pupils will be an of import part to their public presentation as future transcribers with the proficiency that shall guarantee their walking up the stairss of the quality ladder. ” Harmonizing to Calderado, interlingual rendition enables us to larn a big figure of looks, being able to place manner markers and to acquire to cognize more about the linguistic communication construction to better pupils public presentation.
Learning vocabulary includes non merely the cognition of individual words but besides word significances. As Stahl ( 2005 ) puts it vocabulary cognition is knowledge, but the cognition of a word non merely implies a definition, but besides implies how that word fits into the universe in the right context. As it is known, in English a word may hold different significances harmonizing to the context, so particularly in English, context is really utile in thinking new words and leting you to understand the significance of a sentence and of a text. “ A more recent research suggests that direct vocabulary direction can be efficient by leting the instructor to command context and repeat, and by supplying a foundation for future exposures to words in context ” ( Cunningham, 2005 ) . Sokmen ( 1997 ) , remarks that the accomplishment of guessing/inferring from context is a utile scheme in vocabulary acquisition and should be covered in a linguistic communication schoolroom. This is known as the guesswork scheme and this sort of scheme is frequently encouraged because of the tremendous figure of words that English linguistic communication has. As it is impossible to larn all the new words of a foreign linguistic communication, hence, the chief ground given for promoting the usage of the guesswork scheme is the perceptual experience that it is the lone sensible manner for L2 scholars to larn adequate words to organize appropriately big active and inactive vocabularies. However, some surveies ( e.g. Pressley et Al. 1987 ; Kelly 1990 ) indicate that scholars rarely guess the right significances. In this attack, hence, instructors guide pupils to utilize this scheme efficaciously and give them chances to pattern the accomplishment in category.
Although Meara ( 1995, cited in Critchley 1998 ) sentiments that word lists vocabulary is utile for pupils to larn a great measure of words in a brief clip and can be used as an efficient method to analyze vocabulary. Learning through memorizing vocabulary and grammatical constructions is believed to play an of import function in English linguistic communication larning in such an environment. The intension, or cognitive significance of memorization in the Chinese learning civilization is different from that in Western civilizations, where it is frequently equated with mechanical rote larning that does non take to acquisition ( Biggs 1996, Marton et al 1996, On 1996 ) .
Furthermore, “ Learning from word lists, as stated by Waring ( 1995, p. 2 ) , is a witting knowing scheme whereas larning from context is normally incidental to the undertaking at manus, and seeks to help scholars in intensifying their cognition of already known words. ” But in this respect Ianacone ( 1993 ) is an exclusion when he opinions that word lists that pertain to the decontextualizing technique are isolated and insulating, they are constructed in an unreal manner and deficiency context hence do non give any motive to pupils to larn. While Hulstijn ( 2001 ) holds that the BASIC of fluid capableness in communicating is if scholars get a rich L2 vocabulary and this comprises processs like the words dry run in a regular manner. Yet from the synthetical research consequences introduced in the present subdivision, a decision may be drawn that in general, the most of survey findings [ e.g. , Laufer and Shmueli ( 1997 ) , Qian ( 1996 ) , and Prince ( 1996 ) back up the laterality of decontextualizing vocabulary acquisition techniques over contextualized techniques. On the other manus Khuwaileh ‘s consequences support the contextualizing techniques use for the acquisition of vocabulary. Equally far as the thoughts of the governments on the topic of vocabulary acquisition are concerned, a synthesis of the positions presented in this subdivision besides lends support for the rightness of utilizing decontextualizing techniques of vocabulary learning/teaching instead than contextualized techniques [ e.g. , Waring ( 1995 ) , Critchley ( 1998 ) , and Hulstijn ( 2001 ) ] , particularly for novices.
As Krashen ( 1987:128 ) references, “ It can be claimed that grammar interlingual rendition provides garbages of comprehendible input. The theoretical account sentences are normally apprehensible, but the focal point is wholly on the signifier, and non on intending aˆ¦ pupils are forced to read word by word, and accordingly seldom concentrate wholly on the message. But as Hiep ( 2007 ) provinces in order to utilize the linguistic communication efficaciously scholars need to develop communicative competency. And one of the ways in which this communicative competency can be achieved is through existent communicating. The importance of “ existent ” communicating in the ESL schoolroom has frequently been repeated and surely, pupils should be given plentifulness of chance to pass on in state of affairss which are existent, or every bit close to
world as possible. This helps pupils when they are in a foreign state and need to pass on with them in different state of affairss.
Galloway ( 1993 ) studies that Communication Language Teaching may be used by instructors who want to prosecute their pupils in real-life communicating in the mark linguistic communication. This real-life communicating can assist pupils in their acquisition in order to larn new words from the different sort of conversations that they may hold with each-other, or with the instructor and retrieve what they learn for a long clip.
On the other manus virtually no category clip or really small clip is given to pupils in order to bring forth their ain sentences when they are taught via Grammar Translation Method. It does non give form pattern and besides a small clip is spent on unwritten pattern whether productive or generative. A batch of pupils might confront o batch of troubles related to the linguistic communication, because they do non hold the possibility in the schoolroom to personalise or develop their ain manner. A individual can larn a linguistic communication merely when he internalizes its forms in order to organize a wont. It is about impossible to larn a linguistic communication merely by regulations. Practice is really of import in larning a linguistic communication and CLT is a method which can offer to pupils pattern and existent life communicating. Nevertheless, the acceptance of CLT methods has non needfully resulted in the expected results for betterments in English communicative competency ( Rao, 2002 ) . Some pupils have responded negatively to communicative activities, while some instructors have non been confident about utilizing CLT teaching methods. On the other manus CLT has failed to accomplish the expected results in the Chinese EFL context, as the attack is considered to be mostly in
contradiction with the Chinese learning civilization dominated by Confucian doctrine ( Hu, 2002 ) .
In Albania besides this method there is about the same trouble for this method to be successful, because of big category size, unequal resources, scrutiny force per unit areas, and scholars ‘ concerns about the disregard of grammar. Holliday ( 1994 ) states that CLT has the possible to be tailored as culturally appropriate in different instruction contexts, so it is needed to work hard in order tantrum this method suitably.
Despite all of the drawbacks of Grammar Translation Method ( GTM ) , there are certain advantages to be found in such a stiff environment. Although far from seeking to support or reinstate this method, harmonizing to Cook ( 1991:3 ) , “ learning methods normally incorporate a position of L2 larning whether implicitly or explicitly. Grammar interlingual rendition learning emphasizes accounts of grammatical points because this fits in with its position that L2 acquisition is the acquisition of witting cognition. Communicative learning methods make the pupils to speak to each other because they see L2 acquisition as turning out of communicating. ”
Sokmen ( 1997 ) therefore states that “ the pendulum has swung from direct instruction of vocabulary ( the grammar interlingual rendition method ) to incidental ( the communicative attack ) and now, admirably, back to the center: implicit and explicit acquisition ” ( p.239 ) .
For illustration from a study in China, carried out by Burnaby, B. and Sun, Y. ( 1989 ) the findings are that Chinese instructors admitted and thought that CLT possibly a good one when it is applied and used with pupils that are non of English big leagues. They stress that the Communicative Language Teaching may be good merely for pupils who want to travel to English speech production states.
From a more recent survey conducted by Gu ( 2005 ) in China the consequences of the questionnaire analysis showed that that both Chinese undertaking participants and Chinese non-participants had a more positive position of Communicative Language Teaching than of the traditional grammar-translation and audio-lingual methods.