Analysis of BT cotton and non BT cotton
Cotton production is of import to Pakistan ‘s agribusiness and to the overall economic system. About 26 per centum of all husbandmans grow cotton, and over 15 per centum of Pakistan ‘s entire cultivated country is devoted to this harvest, with production concentrated in two states: Punjab ( 80 % ) and Sindh ( 20 % ) . Cotton and its intermediate and concluding merchandises ( such as, yarn, fabrics and dress ) contribute significantly to the gross domestic merchandise ( 8 % ) , entire employment ( 17 % ) , and foreign exchange net incomes ( 54 % ) in Pakistan. Pakistan is the 4th largest manufacturer and the 3rd largest consumer of cotton in the universe. The cotton-textile sectors have of import deductions for national economic public presentation and poorness reduction.the intent of survey is to find economic analysis of BT cotton and other conventional assortments that impact on the income degree of the husbandmans. The primary informations will be collected from the territory Rahim Yar Khan and Bahawalnagar. The husbandmans will be divided into two groups BT and non BT assortments. Ordinary Least Square technique will be used to look into the income degree of husbandmans towards BT and non BT cotton.
Pakistan is the 4th largest manufacturer of cotton after China, USA and India. Its Overall part to the universe production of cotton in 2008-2010 was 8 per centum. In footings of cotton ingestion, Pakistan is ranked at 3rd place with an one-year demand of 12.2 million bales, after China and India with an one-year demand of 52.8, 18.2 million bales severally. It produces about 2.3 million dozenss of cotton. Cotton is the chief hard currency harvest of Pakistan. It is 2nd in footings of country to wheat, which is the state ‘s staple nutrient. Area yearly planted under cotton is around 3 million hectares and histories for 15 per centum of the sum cropped country. Cotton accounts for 7.3 per centum of the value added in agribusiness and about 1.6 per centum to GDP. ( Government of Pakistan, 2009-10 ) . Fabrics, Pakistan ‘s largest industry and a major beginning of employment in fabrication, depends on cotton agriculture for its supply of natural stuff. Cotton and its made-ups contribute 65 per centum of the foreign exchange earned from ware goods. It besides supply provender for farm animal and dairy agriculture. Cotton picking which is extremely labour-intensive activity, is an of import beginning of employment for rural adult females, supplying auxiliary income to rural farm and nonfarm families.
In position of its widespread forward and backward linkages, the cotton harvest occupies a alone place in the rural economic system of Pakistan. Its public presentation holds the key non merely for the growing and development of agribusiness sector but besides for the healthy growing in the overall economic system. A good cotton harvest is critical for the sustainable development of agribusiness, nutrient security, and poverty relief attempts at the micro- and macro degrees.
There are two major cotton bring forthing states in Pakistan. Punjab histories for about 80 per centum of entire cotton harvest country and entire cotton production in the state, while the Sindh state histories for about 20 per centum. The states of the North West Frontier Province ( NWFP ) and Balochistan have a joint portion of less than 1 per centum.
In Pakiostan cotton country harvested is forecast at 2.96 million hectares in 2010, 4.2 per centum higher than the last twelvemonth. The larger country prognosis is based as enhanced fight of the cotton harvest relative to viing harvests ( e.g. , rice and sugar cane ) . In malice of last twelvemonth ‘s low returns compared with the selling twelvemonth ( MY ) 2007/08, the addition in MY 2009/10 country harvested is mostly due to even lower returns realized in rice and sugar cane production. Pakistan is confronting an increasing deficit of irrigation H2O. Cotton is less H2O intensive so rice and sugar cane therefore doing it an attractive pick for the husbandmans. The production is estimated at 11819 thousand bales for 2008-09, higher by 1.1 per centum over the last twelvemonth ‘s production of 11655 1000 bales. However, the cotton production was 14.5 per centum less than the mark of 14.11 million bales chiefly due to the scarceness of irrigation H2O, less usage of DAP to cotton harvest, onslaught of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus ( CLCV ) , mealy bug and white fly on the harvest and last picking of cotton was affected due to higher monetary values of wheat announced by the Government ( Government of Pakistan 2009-10 ) .
In position of the prima portions of Punjab in country and production of cotton, its production public presentation has a major bearing on the overall state of affairs in the state. The mean country under cotton in the state over the period is 2.36 million hectares. Over the period 1991-2005, the mean cotton output in Punjab was 594 kilogram/hectare ( Agricultural Statisticss of Pakistan 2003-2004 ( Government of Pakistan, 2006 ) .
Cotton is a debatable harvest due to attractive force of big figure of sucking and masticating plagues which leads to heavy usage of pesticides and other works protection steps. In Pakistan pesticides are widely practiced which leads towards higher cost of production. Statisticss show that the usage of pesticide has increased well over the clip. Before 1970, the pesticide usage was negligible. At present pesticide is the most of import inputs in cotton production. It is estimated that around 70 per centum imported pesticides are used in cotton production.
But now scenario has been changed after the development of transgenic seeds of assorted harvests particularly cotton. Technological inventions and technological developments, as in other Fieldss, hold the key to better productiveness for increasing farm production as land and H2O resources face tough competition and invasions from nonfarm utilizations. In the late 1980s transgenic seeds industry started to develop harvests with constitutional plagues control from Bacillus thuringiensis ( BT ) cistrons, derived from dirt bacteriums that protects cotton harvest against bollworm by bring forthing a particular protein. The bollworms feeding on BT cotton leaves become tired and unenrgetic, cut downing harm to the harvest workss. Hence Cotton was one of the first harvests to profit from biotechnology-abounding plague shelter, and BT cotton is now one of the most extensively used transgenic harvests ( commercially adopted in 1996 ) being adopted by many developed and developing states. It is presently grown throughout the United States, China, India, Australia, Mexico, Argentina, South Africa and Colombia on commercial footing.
Pakistan has lagged behind in the development and acceptance of BT cotton. Other major cotton bring forthing countries-the United States, China, and India-have made important advancement in the development and cultivation of BT cotton assortments. BT cotton is non allowed by authorities of Pakistan to be practiced during old old ages. Experimental work on the development of local BT assortments is in procedure. But as such no pure genetically modified seed has been released or introduced in the market except a few 1s by the authorities bureau. There is no organisation in Pakistan has got patent right of BT cotton seed, Therefore the largely adept BT cotton seed are illegal and unauthorised.
A big figure of surveies were conducted showed strong advantage of following BT cotton over conventional cotton in footings of productiveness and usage of farm inputs like pesticide and H2O. Frisvold, et Al. ( 1998 ) , Gouse, et Al. ( 2003 ) , , Bennett ( 2005 ) , Qaim and de Janvry ( 2005 ) , Vasant P. et Al. ( 2006 ) and Qaim, et Al. ( 2006 ) analyzed that acceptance of BT cotton have positive consequence on per hectare output, profitableness and environment by less usage of pesticides which besides cut down the cost of production in following BT.
In malice of extended work on the comparative survey between BT and Non BT and on the production and resource usage efficiency of assorted harvests, limited separate surveies were carried out in instance of BT cotton in universe particularly in Pakistan. This survey will be helpful to make full the spread in research related to public presentation of BT husbandmans. This survey will concentrate on the productiveness differences and resource usage efficiency of BT husbandmans.
Specific aims of the survey will be
1. To gauge the production cost of BT cotton and conventional cotton assortments.
2. To find comparative profitableness of BT cotton and conventional cotton assortments.
3. To gauge the extent of assorted factor doing fluctuation profitableness of BT cotton and conventional cotton assortments.
4 To gauge the alteration of income degree of husbandman on following the BT cotton.
V. Review of Literature
Chaudhry and Khan, ( 2009 ) conducted survey in Multan on cotton production and the factors set uping on its. Entire 100 samples were collected in that sample 60 little husbandmans, 25 medium and 15 big husbandmans was indiscriminately selected from two Tehsils viz. Multan and Shujabad of territory Multan. The Cobb-Douglas Production Function is applied to measure the effects of assorted inputs like cultivation, seed and sowing, irrigation, fertiliser, works protection, inter-culturing / hoeing and labor cost on cotton output. The Cost-Benefit Ratio for the big husbandmans was found higher ( 1.41 ) than that of little ( 1.22 ) and medium ( 1.24 ) husbandmans.
Subramanian and Qaim, ( 2008 ) these surveies focused on insect immune Bacillus thuringiensis ( BT ) harvests, particularly BT cotton, because this engineering has been adopted by big no of husbandman all over the universe, The husbandmans got figure of benefit from BT cotton these are insecticide nest eggs, higher effectual outputs through reduced harvest losingss, and net gross additions, in malice of higher seed monetary values. We show that BT cotton entails positive direct and indirect public assistance effects in rural economic system of India. Using a microeconomic mold attack and comprehensive family study informations, we found that the engineering increases aggregative employment with interesting gender deductions. Furthermore, it increases household incomes.Our consequences demonstrate that BT cotton contributes to poverty decrease and rural development.
Bennett, Ismael1, Morse And Shankar, ( 2004 ) BT cotton acceptance of smallholder husbandmans over three seasons ( 1998/99, 1999/ 2000, 2000/01 ) following acceptance. The analysis presents concepts and compares groupwise differences for cardinal variables in BT v. non-BT engineering and uses arrested developments to farther analyze the production and net income impacts of BT acceptance. BT cotton are monitored in footings of insect powder active ingredient ( AI ) and the Biocide Index. Results show significant and important fiscal benefits to smallholder cotton agriculturists of following BT cotton over three seasons in footings of increased outputs, lower insect powder spray costs and higher gross margins.sm, all holder oBTained more benefit as comparison to big farmer.Analysis utilizing the Gini-coefficient are used to compare the income inequality dvantage of BT cotton decrease in non-bollworm insect powder.
Subramanian and Qaim, ( 2009 ) the impact of genetically modified ( GM ) harvests on the hapless in developing states is still controversy. The old surveies have examined direct productiveness effects of Bacillus thuringiensis ( BT ) cotton, small is known about wider socio economic results. We use a microeconomic mold attack and comprehensive study informations from India to analyse public assistance and distribution effects in a typical small town economic system. BT cotton acceptance additions aggregate employment with interesting gender deductions. Likewise, aggregate household incomes additions, including for hapless and vulnerable husbandmans, foregrounding that BT cotton contributes to poverty decrease and rural development.
Gouse, Kirsten And Jenkins ( 2003 ) the acceptance rate of insect-resistant cotton in South Africa can oBTained of figure of benefit. This article focuses on the grounds and effects of BT cotton acceptance by large-scale and small-scale cotton husbandmans in South Africa and considers the impact of the acceptance on outputs, cost and net income. In add-on the paper besides analyses the production efficiency of adoptive parents and non-adopters.both big and little husbandman oBTained high output. who spot the possible benefits of the BT cotton seed.
Ismael And Piesse, ( 2003 ) The consequences of a biennial study of smallholders in Makhathini Flats, KwaZulu-Natal show that husbandmans who adopted BT cotton in 1999-2000 get of benefit Higher outputs and lower chemical costs, higher seed costs, giving higher gross borders. These steps showed negative benefits in 1998-99, which conflicts with continued acceptance, but stochastic efficiency frontier appraisal, which takes history of the labour saved, showed that adoptive parents averaged 88 % efficiency, as compared with 66 % for the non adoptive parents. In1999-2000, when late rains lowered outputs, the spread widened to 74 % for adoptive parents and 48 % for non adoptive parents.
Yilmaz and ozkan ( 2004 ) purpose of this survey was to analyze the consequence of land term of office systems on cotton production by utilizing production maps. Datas were collected from 64 cotton farms by face to confront questionnaire method. Econometric analyses were carried out by utilizing Linear, Cobb-Douglas, Semi Log, Exponential production maps. The information revealed that land term of office systems had no important consequence on cotton production. Furthermore, the land term of office systems did non demo any difference in cotton production engineering pursued by husbandmans. Arshad, Suhail, Asghar, Tayyib And Hafeez. , ( 2007 ) informations are collected from different disrict of Punjab analysis showed that husbandmans were really eager to follow BT cotton, but its hapless public presentation in some countries damaged the assurance of husbandmans chief factor that influence of acceptance of BT cotton. Consequences indicated that there were many grounds for the non-adoption of BT cotton, is higher irrigation and fertiliser demands of the BT cotton cultivars. Most grounds given by the husbandmans related to agronomic and direction patterns, which were may hold been due to a deficiency of cognition and information on the genetically modified insect opposition of BT cotton. The higher seed cost was besides a chief factor in the non-adoption of BT cotton.
Cabanilla, Abdoulaye, and Sanders. , ( 2004 ) . This paper provides estimations of the possible benefits from BT-cotton if introduced in West Africa. Our consequence shows important farm-level benefits. Aggregate benefits depend on acceptance rate and output advantage of BT-cotton. These scope from a depression of US $ 7 million to a high of US $ 67 million in Mali ; US $ 4 million to US $ 41 million in Burkina Faso ; US $ 5 million to US $ 52 million in Benin ; US $ 4 million to US $ 38 million in Cote d’Ivoire ; and, US $ 1 million to US $ 7 million in Senegal. The decrease in insect powder usage is an added environmental benefit. Non-adoption of BT-cotton in the part will finally ensue in non-competitiveness in the universe market.
Hofsa, Fokband and Vaissayre. , ( 2006 ) The survey analysis that The acceptance of BT cotton led to a lessening in pyrethroid usage, but the degree of insect opposition of this cultivar was non sufficient to wholly drop this pesticide from the spraying programme. On the other manus, organophosphates were still being applied in significant sums, . BT cotton acceptance did take to labour nest eggs, but the extent of this addition was non every bit high as expected. In decision, cropping BT cotton in Makhathini Flats did non bring forth sufficient income to anticipate a touchable and sustainable socioeconomic betterment due to the manner the harvest is presently managed. Adoption of an invention like BT cotton seems to pay merely in an agro-system with a sufficient degree of intensification.
Arshad and Suhail ( 2010 ) Cotton jassid, whitefly and thrips are of import sucking insect plagues in cotton Fieldss in the Punjab, Pakistan. The seasonal kineticss of these plagues were compared on transgenic BT cotton line, There was no important difference in population densenesss of theses plagues in BT and non-BT cotton, when nil was sprayed. However, insecticide application efficaciously controlled theses plagues in both BT and non-BT cotton. In decision, there is no difference in transgenic BT and non-BT cotton for jassid, whitefly and thrips onslaught and application of suited insect powder is required to theses plagues on transgenic cotton.
Huang, Hu, Pray, Qiao, Scott and Rozelle, ( 2003 ) The overall end of this survey is to find the extent by which genetically engineered ( GE ) harvests in China can take to decreases of pesticide usage. One of the first surveies of the consequence of works biotechnology on hapless husbandmans, the survey is based on a information set collected by the writers in 2000 in North China. The paper ‘s descriptive, budget and multivariate analysis find that BT cotton significantly reduces the figure of crop-dustings, the measure of pesticides used and the degree of pesticide outgos. All BT cotton assortments are every bit affected in this study.reduction of pesticide can besides salvage the labor, more efficient overall production, every bit good as positive wellness and environmental impacts.
A really of import and important thing in carry oning any analytical survey is to follow a systematic and appropriate technique. After explicating the survey and specific aims, inventing an appropriate methodological analysis to carry on and finish the survey is really of import measure. Data aggregation, assorted related values and tendencies present in any type of informations ( quantitative and qualitative ) should carefully be applied and practiced. Presentation of informations and airing lead to successful completion of survey. ( Akhtar, 1999 )
The survey will be confined to the District Rahim yar khan and Bahawalpur Nagar of the Punjab. A sample of about 120 Cotton agriculturists will be used in this survey. I will take sample from two territory of the three Tehsil of Sadiq Abad, Khan Pur and chestian 40 sample from each. A suited functional signifier will be used to find Economic analysis of comparing between BT cotton and non BT ( conventional cotton ) and that impact on the income degree of the husbandman.
A figure of techniques will be used to cover up the aims of the survey such as, I will utilize descriptive statistics to find the socio-economic features of the agriculturists. CB analysis will be used to find the benefit cost ratio of turning the BT and non BT cotton.
CB Ratio = Benefit/ Cost * 100
Suitable functional signifier will be used to analyse the output of cotton on assorted type of input. That impact the farmer income degree.
Output of cotton = degree Fahrenheit ( input variables )
Cotton output is dependent variable and other variables like inputs will be independent variables.
The input variables include seed rate, cultural patterns, fertilizer-use, Pesticide usage, Machinery, irrigated country and labor cost etc. The major independent variable will be the usage of cotton.
Primary informations will be on the footing of a well structured, comprehensive interviewing agenda will be used for the aggregation of elaborate information on measures of end product and assorted inputs used by the husbandmans.
VII. Literature Cited
Arshad. M, A. suhail, M. , asghar, M. Tayyib and F. , hafeez. , 2007 Factors Influencing the Adoption of BT Cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan JOURNAL OF Agriculture & A ; Social Sciences Pp, 121-124.
Arshad. , M and A. , Suhail. , 2010. Analyzing the Sucking Insect Pests Community in Transgenic BT Cotton. International Journal Of Agriculture & A ; Biology Vol: 12, Pp. 764-768.
Bennett.R. , Y. Ismael. , S.morse and B. Shankar. , 2004 Reductions in insect powder usage from acceptance of BT cotton in South Africa: impacts on economic public presentation and toxic burden to the environment Journal of Agricultural Science 142, 665-674.
Cabanilla L. S. , T.Abdoulaye and J. H. smoothers 2004 Economic cost of non-adoption of BT-cotton in West Africa: with particular mention to Mali Int. J. Biotechnology, Vol: . Ten, Pp 1-16
Chaudhry, I. S. , M.B. Khan, 2009. Factors Affecting Cotton Production in Pakistan: Empirical Evidence from Multan District. Journal of Quality and Technology Management, vol. , 5: 91-100
Gouse. M.. , J.F. Kirsten and L. Jenkins. , 2003. BT Cotton In South Africa: Adoption And The Impact On Farm Incomes Amongst Small-Scale And Large Scale Farmers Agrekon, Vol. , 42:15-28
Government of Pakistan, ( 2009-10 ) . Economic Survey of Pakistan, Economic Advisor ‘s Wing, Finance Division, Islamabad
Hofsa. J.L. , M. , Fokb, and M. , Vaissayre 2006 Impact of BT cotton acceptance on pesticide usage by smallholders: A 2-year study in Makhatini Flats ( South Africa ) Crop Protection Pp 984-988.
Huanga. J. , R. Hu. , C. Pray, F. Qiao, and C. Rozelle, , 2003. Biotechnology as an option to chemical pesticides: a instance survey of BT cotton in China, J. Huang et Al. / Agricultural Economicss Pp 55-67
Ismael. Y and J. Piesse. , 2003. Can GM-Technologies Help the Poor? The Impact
of BT Cotton in Makhathini Flats, KwaZulu-Natal World Development Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 717-732,
Subramanian, A. , and M. Qaim. , 2008. The impact of BT cotton on hapless families in rural India. Nature Precedings: hdl:10101.
Subramanian, A. , and M.Qaim. , 2009.Rural Poverty and Employment Effects of BT Cotton in India International Association of Agricultural Economists ( IAAE ) Conference Beijing, China,1-21
Yilmaz.I. , and B.ozkan.,2004 Econometric Analysis of Land Tenure Systems in Cotton Production in Turkey international diary of agribusiness & A ; biology vol.,6: 1023-102.