Analyse The Cotton Industry Of Pakistan Economics Essay

Pakistan is the 4th largest cotton manufacturer in the universe. This creates a broad market for the comfortable growing of the fabric industry since cotton is one of the most copiously available natural stuffs in the state which will take towards industrialisation. Fabric Industry is, hence, cardinal to the Pakistan ‘s economic system. It besides helps make employment and is beginning of gaining foreign income.

Fabric and vesture are the two major industries of Pakistan and contributes majorly to the entire export. These industries are accounting unit of ammunition about 46 % of the entire fabrication and besides supplying employment to over 28 % of the entire fabrication labour force.

The Pakistan fabric industry contributes more than 60 % to the state ‘s entire exports,

This amounts to around 5.2 billion US dollars. The fabrication sector contributes to around half of the entire exports and fabric sector contributes around 46 % of the fabrication sector ‘s part. The negative growing of 2.6 % worsening from $ 16.4 billion to

$ 16.0 billion in July-April 2008-09. ( Asiatic Social Science, Vol. 6, No. 11 ; November 2010 )

There are about 1,221 ginning units, 442 whirling units, 124 big whirling units and 425 little units which produce fabric merchandises.

In Asia, Pakistan is the 8th largest exporter of fabric merchandises. The part of this industry to the entire GDP is 8.5 % . The one-year volume of entire universe fabric trade is US $ 18

Million which is turning at 2.5 per centum. However, Out of it, Pakistan ‘s portion is less than one per centum. ( Horizon securities, Report on fabric industry of Pakistan )

The fabric industry of Pakistan is made up large-scale organized sectors every bit good as a extremely disconnected bungalow and little graduated table sector which include many little concerns.

Distribution of fabric Industry

The fabric industry consists of five major phases:

Cultivating and Reaping

Preparatory Procedures




The assorted sectors that are a portion of the fabric value concatenation are:

Spining, most of the spinning industry operates in an organized mode with in-house weaving, deceasing and completing installations.

Weaving comprises of little and average sized entities.

The processing sector, consisting dyeing, printing and coating sub-sectors, merely a portion of this sector is runing in an organized province, able to treat big measures while the remainder of the units operate as little and average sized units.

The printing section dominates the overall processing industry followed by fabric dyeing

And fabric bleaching.

The garments fabricating section generates the highest employment within the fabric value concatenation. Over 75 % of the units comprise little sized units.

The knitwear industry largely consists of mills runing as incorporate units

( Kniting + processing+ doing up installations ) . The vesture sectors both woven and knits are chiefly constellating in Karachi- Lahore and Faisalabad where sufficient ladies labour is available.

Exports of Fabrics

Pakistan has recorded exports deserving $ 19.3 billion which non merely exceeds the mark set for exports in 2009-10, i.e. $ 18.8 billion. Textile exports fetched a king of beasts ‘s portion of 51.8 % in value footings out of the entire exports for the fiscal twelvemonth 2009-10 Exports of fabric and vesture, which crossed the $ 10 billion grade, recorded a growing of 7 % as compared to the last twelvemonth. The fabric exports recorded a significant addition to bing market but besides to markets like Turkey, Portugal and Singapore, which broadened the client base. ( Pakistan Textile Journal )

The above tabular array shows that the fabric industry has been able to retain its exports at the same degree in the last five old ages. The cotton jean cloth has seen a stead rise over the old ages, while other merchandises have maintained their place more or less the same.

One of the chief grounds for this is the displacement from China to other states for importing goods.

China Vs Pakistan

Rising Labor Costss: harmonizing to a beginning, The labour cost used to be every bit low as GBP 30 /monthA – approximately 350 Yuans and now is every bit high as GBP 470 ( $ 760 or 5ooo Yuan ) A in some topographic points.Though the existent labour rates will fall someplace between, it is still a immense increase.A This exceptionally high addition in labour cost has driven the cost of fabricating higher for the Chinese people. It has proven really damaging for the industry as many companies are said to non hold made a net income for a really long period of clip. Besides, the labour category is unable to acquire the monetary value they want to last in expensive South China, they are traveling towards inland China where big building undertakings are coming up and the cost of life is inexpensive. This has led to a decrease in handiness of labour for production. This has led to a higher labor cost every bit good as decreased handiness of labour.

Table: Cost of Making Business in Textile Sector ( China & A ; Pakistan ) pic 1.JPG

This tabular array indicates that the labour cost in Pakistan is much lower than that in China for the same figure of hours. However it does in dictates that electricity, conveyance and revenue enhancements are lower in China as compared to Pakistan. The rise in labour monetary values nevertheless are switching the attending towards Pakistan because it is cheaper overall to export from here. The advantage of low labour costs in the Chinese fabric industry is confronting a menace from some other adjacent Southeast Asiatic counties. It stated that the mean labour cost in South China ‘s coastal metropoliss has risen to about one dollar per hr. But harmonizing to official statistics from Vietnam, Cambodia, Bengal and Indonesia, their mean labour costs are severally 0.29 dollar per hr, 0.36 dollar per hr, 0.22 dollar per hr and 0.36 dollar per hr.

International strains and environmental concerns: increasing protectionism in international trade. After the eruption of the fiscal crisis, authoritiess to protect their ain industries, by bettering the safety, wellness, environmental criterions and to take anti-dumping, offseting steps, to construct barriers to merchandise, China ‘s fabric and vesture exports face trade clashs become more serious. In 2009, under the model of WTO trade redresss, foreign exports of fabric merchandises to China to look into the undertaking and the preliminary opinion had been more than 30, which involves the chemical fibre fibril, staple fibre, drapes, thread, cover, curtains fabric, cotton narration, bed sheets, linen, narrow loom, etc. from the natural material-to-end scope of merchandises. In January 2010, foreign instances on Chinese fabric merchandises on the callback of 14 instances, including five kids ‘s plush plaything, the kids ‘s vesture from 9 to inform states including the United States, Canada, Hungary, Turkey, Oliver to other states. So far this twelvemonth by foreign states against China ‘s anti-dumping, offseting responsibility instances, there were more than 10 instances, affecting merchandises include polypropene, nylon fibril narration, round looms, polyester basic fibre, weaving, heating tablet and so on.

Carbon emanation marks or restricts China ‘s fabric exports into Europe and the United States another stalking-horse. With the planetary clime conference in Copenhagen, Denmark, the convention of low-carbon economic system has been widespread concern ; the province will hold units of pollution emanations and energy ingestion degree of more rigorous ordinance. On the fabric and garment industry in footings of printing and dyeing industry, companies will hold to defy greater force per unit areas. The same clip, developing states, chiefly through the international C trading ( CDM ) market mechanisms to take part in international C emanations trading, C trading in China is at the underside of the industrial concatenation, the C trading market and the criterions are abroad. In developed states has long been its proficient criterions to restrict Chinese fabric exports, C dioxide emanation marks may curtail China ‘s fabric exports to go another alibi. ( China Manufacturer )

Issues of Textile Industry

Environment: since the export of fabric started in, it has seen some limitation based on environmental concerns began to emerge. Some exporters in Pakistan even had cancellation of their orders because of the deficiency of conformity with certain statute laws in the importation states. This causes major losingss to the fabric industry.

Presents, Peoples are acquiring more concerned about the environment hence new environmental criterions are being introduced all over the universe. Therefore, even the goods presently being exported are progressively being expected to run into rigorous environmental criterions. There are a batch of procedures involved in the devising to textile and al these procedures pollute the environment in some manner. This Begin when the framers use pesticide on the cotton harvest and to cultivate the natural fibre, or the emanation when man-made fibre is produced every bit good as the H2O pollution in the dyeing procedure that normally get ejected in the rivers. Its involves many procedures and uses different chemicals from start to complete to make the concluding phase of completion.

During the past few decennaries the consciousness sing environmental jobs has increased well and has become an of import issue in the fabric trade due to assorted environmental and wellness statute laws, and besides environmental policy is progressively dictated through market forces. Many chemicals used in the fabric industry cause environmental and wellness jobs. These jobs may happen during the production procedure, with regard to emanations or occupational wellness jobs. Other jobs caused by these chemicals appear due to their presence in the concluding merchandise. However, worldwide environmental jobs associated with the fabric industry are typically those associated with the H2O pollution caused by the discharge of untreated wastewater and those because of usage of toxic chemicals particularly during treating. These chemicals can harm consumer if retained in the cloth. ( Pakistan Textile Journal, October 2010 )

This tabular array shows the sum of money invested in the import of organic chemicals which is increasing every bit good as really high. This suggests that from all these chemicals at that place exist a harmful by merchandise which amendss the environment at a big graduated table and is disapprove by many states covering in the fabric concern.

Energy Crisis: Gas load-shedding continues in Punjab and NWFP despite a important addition in temperature. A spokesman for the All Pakistan Textile Mills Association ( APTMA ) claimed that 60 to 70 per cent of the industry had been affected and was unable to accept export orders coming in from around the Earth. He said the fabric industry had already endured over 45 yearss of gas disjunction over a period of four months, doing extraordinary production losingss and severely impacting capableness of the industry. In Punjab, he said, energy supply break merely was doing an estimated loss of Rs1 billion per twenty-four hours. In the larger involvement of the economic system and exports, he suggested, the authorities should “ guarantee public-service corporation companies provide smooth electricity and gas supply to the fabric industry ” . ( Pakistan Textile Industry Facing New Challenges )

The lower handiness of electricity was besides a cardinal restraint for the value-added fabric Sector. Harmonizing to State Bank ‘s quarterly study, unluckily, due to round debt local refineries could non supply needed Furnace Oil measure to power coevals companies. As a consequence, import load has increased significantly for Furnace Oil proviso. The growing seen in Jul-Dec FY10 period will be disputing to prolong in the staying months of FY10 given the unequal energy balances in the state. For case, the addition of 0.5 per centum in gas geographic expedition during Jul-Nov FY10 period does non look sufficient to fuel a speedy recovery. It must be noticed here that gas constitutes more than 50 per centum of entire energy ingestion by industries. Similarly, bare power investings in recent old ages allowed merely a little addition in electricity coevals capacity ; which excessively frequently remains under-utilized due to H2O deficits or deficient proviso of gas and/or furnace oil. For case, as winter rains remained low in FY10, the Hydral coevals capableness declined aggressively in January 2010. Similarly, gas gross revenues to

Power sector besides declined during H1-FY10. Consequently, the usage of furnace oil ( FO ) for thermic coevals increased. The gas burden casting to textile industries for 1 twenty-four hours in a hebdomad decreases the production of fabric finished merchandises due to dyeing procedure. ( Report on fabric industry, Horizon Pak )

This suggests that since the monetary values of fuel are increasing its doing the cost of production to travel higher every bit good. Besides the day-to-day break of electricity and gas is a major concern for the fabric industry because it stops and hinders the procedure which consequences in losingss for the houses and industry as a whole even though major participant have generators it is still a dearly-won thing for most manufacturers in the industry.

Poor Transport Facilities: the railroad systems and cargo train system are unkempt in Pakistan. The Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa fabric proprietors have troubles because the dyes and other completing stuff foremost conveyance to Punjab from Karachi port and the finished fabric merchandise once more conveyance to Karachi port for exporting. Ultimately dual conveyance cost on the Punjab fabric merchandise which increase the monetary value competition between Sindh and Punjab exporters because of this Punjab & A ; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa fabric Millss. There are besides unequal locomotor engines, individual path and corruptness in the railroad system which makes it a hapless pick to transport fabric. The other method of transporting through dawdler requires a batch of clip and is rather expensive by route. This increases the monetary value and reduces the net income border.

Tariffs & A ; trade understandings While FY10 started with important positive noise on possible reduction/removal of duty and trade barriers for Pak fabric exporters, the same has non played out excessively excitingly YTD. Mar-09 remotion of 5.8 % anti dumping responsibility on Pak bed wear exports to the EU has non yet reflected in bed wear exports ( -4 % YTD FY10 ) while negotiations of the EU widening GSP-plus to Pakistan ( which could ensue in decrease in duty to 4-4.7 % from 11.3-

11.7 % ) besides appear to hold reached a deadlock. With the entryway of Pakistan in the

List of Generalized System of Preferences ( GSP-plus ) eligible states, Pakistan fabric

Exports have the possible to make 20 billion US dollars. ( Horizon Securities, Report on Textile Industry )

The commissariats of Finance Bill 2009-10 are non textile industry friendly at all. Commissariats like reintroduction of 0.5 % minimal revenue enhancement on domestic gross revenues, 1 % keep backing revenue enhancement on import of fabric and articles etc. , are nil but last stuck on industry ‘s back. Reintroduction of minimal revenue enhancement on domestic gross revenues would ask for ineluctable liquidness job, which is already reached to the dismaying degree. The fabric industry was confronting negative coevals of financess due to unaffordable grade up rate. ( Research Journal of International Studies – Issue 14 ( May, 2010 ) )

Therefore the revenue enhancements and responsibilities are farther driving the cost of fabric industry to a higher degree and are turn outing to make hinderance and job for the industry with the debut of the new policies. Besides, the authorities does n’t non look to be set to tauten on its committedness to the fabric industry as it is non assisting it through these steps and is inefficaciously enforcing the helpful policies.

Internal issues. Depreciation of Pakistani rupee during the old ages raised the cost of imported inputs. In add-on, dual figure rising prices and high cost of funding has earnestly effected the growing in the fabric industry. Exports are holding a difficult clip marketing their merchandises as the purchasers are non sing Pakistan due the political and spiritual instability in the state.

Need for developing establishments Diploma Level Courses on should besides be opened in the Textile Institutions in Faisalabad and Karachi and more classs should be introduced in the Polytechnics in countries like Multan, Hyderabad, Lahore and Gujranwala. There is a great demand to hold a technically trained staff to manage the fabric stuff so as to better the quality of our merchandise every bit good as to travel toward expeditiously produced textile stuff. This will forestall loss at the manus of rawness and untrained staff and bring forth a positive growing in the industry in footings of its production capablenesss

Lack of Modernize Equipment Furthermore, critics argue that the fabric industry has disused equipment and machinery. The inability to seasonably overhaul the equipment and machinery has led to the diminution of Pakistani fabric fight. Due to obsolete engineering the cost of production is higher in Pakistan. This requires investing in the fabric sector to better and upgrade the machinery and equipment of the fabric sector to convey this sector towards promotion and improved merchandise quality.

Lack of Research & A ; Development ( R & A ; D ) in Cotton Sector The deficiency of research & A ; development ( R & A ; D ) in the cotton sector of Pakistan has resulted in low quality of cotton in comparing to rest of Asia. Because of the subsequent low profitableness in cotton harvests, husbandmans are switching to other hard currency harvests, such as sugar cane. Research in this field can take to better output of cotton and hence improved quality of stuff. However this sector is neglected and small attending is paid to it. This is because of limited usage of modern engineering and method which need to be improvised in order to accomplish better criterions of production more efficaciously and expeditiously.

Rising Cotton Monetary values: Monetary value of cotton & A ; other natural stuff used in fabric industry fluctuate quickly in Pakistan. The rapid addition in the monetary value natural stuff affects the cost of production severely. The addition in natural stuff monetary values fluctuates quickly due to dual digit rising prices & A ; instable internal status of Pakistan. Due to increase in the cost of production the demand for export & A ; place as good decreased which consequence in footings of down size of a house. Hence the unemployment degree will besides increase. Government should take serious measure to last the fabric industry. In order to diminish the monetary value natural stuff for fabric we need to increase our production capableness. Simultaneously, the authorities should do agreement for presenting international system of Cotton Standardization in Pakistan to heighten quality and value of Pakistan lint cotton by using the proficient services of Pakistan Cotton Standard Institute. ( Research Journal of International Studies – Issue 14 ( May, 2010 ) )

Government Contribution

Harmonizing to Daily times News, Pakistan Textile Mills Association ( APTMA ) is be aftering to take enterprises for the fabric industry to accomplish $ 25 billion exports by 2014-15. it has proposed five cardinal enterprises to the government-which include revamping agriculture research for addition in cotton productiveness, 24/7 energy supply, zero rating-regime for fabric value concatenation without fuss of refunds ‘ accretion, competitory involvement government and public private partnership for market entree.

Furthermore, The National Assembly ( NA ) Standing Committee on Textile Industry has nem con recommended to the Governor State Bank of Pakistan ( SBP ) that a commission consisting representatives from Bankss and value concatenation of the fabric sector-under the protections of Deputy Governor SBP and Executive Director SBP-may be constituted to look into the affairs related to the hiking in mark-up rate, restructuring of loans obtained by the fabric industry from assorted commercial Bankss.

Harmonizing to the proceedingss of the commission meeting presided over by the president Haji Muhammad Akram Ansari at commission room of the SBP Karachi, Governor State Bank of Pakistan informed the commission that the Bankss are functioning all sectors of the fabric industry in all geographic countries including the 1s that are confronting multiple jobs due to war on panic. All the Bankss have been positively antiphonal to the demands in the inauspicious fiscal impact spun off by planetary recession, diminution in demand, power and energy deficits and input costs escalation. ( Saturday, April 09, 2011, Daily times )

Therefore SBP is being asked to look into following the policy to measure whether fabric companies are following proper ordinances and the reappraisal of the policies will better the status of the fabric industry by regulating its operation and cut downing unneeded cost

Besides, APTMA has already proposed five cardinal enterprises to the authorities including revamping agribusiness research for addition in cotton productiveness, 24/7 energy supply, zero-rating government for fabric value concatenation without fuss of refunds ‘ accretion, competitory involvement government and public-private partnership for market entree. Under the first capping on export volumes, the authorities restricted the cotton narration export to 50 million kg ‘s per month in January 2010 ( day-to-day times, Saturday, April 09, 2011 )

This suggests the authorities is being asked to better its engagement scheme in the fabric sector and better the nature of concern through the above recommended tactics which will supply a solution to the job in a mode as to heighten the production and distribution of the fabric merchandises.


The fabric industry plays a critical function for the Pakistani economic system as it reels in foreign exchange and has a high part to the GDP. The Pakistani fabric industry has a immense potency if the jobs are right resolved and investing is made in the sector as there are many factors that contribute to the thriving of the sector and if controlled decently can ensue in a higher rate of growing. There are many grounds that prevent this sector to use full capacity that need to be addressed by the authorities. Government of Pakistan demands to be serious in deciding these issues as it can be a critical manner of earn better foreign exchange. The authorities needs to take immediate stairss to control the trade shortage which might increase if non addressed decently.

There is besides an chance to better its planetary standing as the focal point is switching from China to the other Asiatic manufacturer and this can be utilized to accomplish a better degree of export through merchandise betterment and the services alteration provided by the industry. The fabric companies need to run into more possible purchaser and ask for them to Pakistan to better foreign concern relationships.