An Exclusive Economic Zone Economics Essay
Mauritius is a nautical province with an Exclusive Economic Zone ( EEZ ) of about 2.3 million km2. In line with its policy of economic variegation, the authorities of Mauritius has late reoriented its attack to tap its marine resources more efficaciously with the purpose of doing the state an pelagic province. The Mauritanian Economy is based on exportation of Sugar, Textile, Tourism and Fisheries. The Fisheries sector contributes about 1.3 % of the GDP through export net incomes and employment creative activity. 90 % of our fish and fish merchandises exported constitute of tuna ( Statistics Mauritius, 2010 ) . The sugar industry and the fabric industry which have been the anchor of the Mauritanian economic system for decennaries have now contracted significantly. Given the state ‘s big EEZ, it has the possible to develop its tuna industry into a strong sector. It could assist the economic system to defy any hereafter possible instability which could originate from the Sugar, Textile and Tourist sectors.
History OF TUNA
Tuna piscaries are among the oldest in the universe with Phoenician trap piscaries for bluefin tuna happening around 2000 BC ( Ravier and Fromentin 2001 ) . They are the largest and commercially the most of import of all piscaries ( Collette and Nauen, 1983 ) and are one of the major merchandises in seafood international trade which accounts for approximately 9 % of export value. They are in turning demand throughout the universe market on history of their first-class meat quality ( Chang and Lin ; FAO, 1997 ) . Schorr ( 2004 ) noted that about a billion people in the universe depend on fish for their support. Developing states are the major provider of fish to developed states. Developed states rely a batch on imports for seafood merchandises as their local piscary productions are unequal to maintain up with the lifting demand.
One tierce of production is exported as fresh, chilled or frozen fish ( Paquotte, 2003 ) . The European Union ( EU ) , USA and Japan markets entirely accounted for more than half of the entire import value. The chief concluding market for tuna in general is the USA, Japan and the EU ( Paquotte, 2003 ) . But, the market for transcribed tuna is in Europe and the chief exportation states are Thailand, Philippines, Ivory Coast and Spain ( Paquotte, 2003 ) . The species of tuna marketed are albacore, bigeye tuna, Atlantic bluefin tuna, Pacific bluefin tuna, southern bluefin tuna, yellowfin tuna and Euthynnus pelamis tuna ( FAO, 2012 ) . The tuna industry contributes significantly to the economic system of assorted states including Mauritius. Seafood merchandises represent the taking export trade good for Mauritius with tuna being the most dominant. Mauritius has systematically being ranked among the taking exporters of transcribed tuna to the EU. The authorities has taken advantage of the booming universe market for tuna in the command to raise employment, increase criterion of life and contribute to economic growing through grosss from export.
Approximately 60 % of fish consumed in the EU are from outside EU Waterss to run into the demands of its market both in footings of canned tuna and tuna pubess. In add-on, it contributes towards investing and employment. This has been possible due to the piscaries dealingss between the EU and 3rd states, notably the African, Caribbean and Pacific ( ACP ) states signatory to the Cotonou Agreement ( Lome Convention ) . Two types of piscaries entree understandings have been signed between the EU and ACP states, the tuna understanding for tuna and tuna like species and the assorted understanding. Therefore, ACP states benefit from discriminatory market entree compared to others and are non affected by duty barriers. This means that ACP states have unrestricted duty-free entree to the EU market for their exports.
Economic mentality of the Fisheries Sector
Increased competition worldwide coupled with the eroding of discriminatory trade understandings and worsening rise in oil monetary values have encouraged the variegation of the economic system by advancing sectors and activities apt to lend to growing. The Marine sector offers high potency to lend significantly in the economic development of the state by hiking economic growing and making more occupations.
Fish being an of import beginning of protein in the population ‘s diet, had a per capita ingestion of 21.7 kilograms in 2010 ( Statistics Mauritius, 2010 ) . The piscaries sector represents a major sector for Mauritius economically, socially and nutritionally. Although local production is non adequate to cover market demands, it provides direct employment to around 12,000 individuals including those involved in fishing, canning, other related activities, distribution and selling. The canneries and processing workss are besides cardinal sector employers. The piscaries and seafood sector contribute about Rs 16 billion to the national economic system whilst the local fish production sector is valued at about Rs 1 billion. The entire supply of fish and fish merchandises for direct ingestion is about 18,000 dozenss, whereas 92,000 dozenss of processed fish and fish merchandises produced chiefly from imported natural stuffs are exported. ( Ministry of Fisheries Annual Report, 2010 )
From a trade and support services point of view, it is besides of import for its links with the Rs 40 billion per annum tourer industry of Mauritius. Entire local production is little at about 9,000t per annum. Mauritanian fish processing and export sector dominates seafood activities. These activities are concentrated in the seafood hub in Port Louis and in 2009 the concerns that comprise the seafood hub had a turnover of about $ 283 million. The seafood hub of Mauritius is a basis of the seafood and fishing concern in the Indian Ocean. It comprises 10 companies that make Mauritius a prima pick in that sector. It engages chiefly in Transporting Agencies, Fishing Vessels, Reefer Vessels renting for the conveyance of tuna from the certified fishing zone, private Quaies in the port together with unloading and cold storage installations, tuna processing of cooked pubess, tins, tuna processing of natural frozen fish, fish repast fabrication and a to the full equipped shipyard for ship edifice and ship fixs. In the same vena, Mauritius Port Services sum to an one-year turnover $ 250 million. The entire turnover of the piscaries sector was around $ 600 million. The first one-fourth of 2012 has brought about a 35.1 % addition in the entire export of fish and fish merchandises. ( Ministry of Fisheries Annual Report, 2010 )
TUNA FISHERY IN MAURITIUS
The tuna piscary is a major industrial fishing activity in Mauritius. It forms the footing of of import local fish processing industries. Mauritius is an of import tuna transhipment base in the South-West Indian Ocean. The temperate tuna piscary based on the albacore tuna is fished chiefly by foreign longliners which tranship their gimmick in Port Louis. In Mauritius, the tuna piscary forms the footing for local fish processing industries and is a valuable subscriber to its societal and economic development. Tuna transhipment at Port Louis is another of import fish valuable related activity since several decennaries ( NPOA-IUU, 1995 ) . An artisanal tuna piscary has besides developed around Fish Aggregating Devices ( FADs ) placed around Mauritius. The economic part of tuna and tuna like species bases at a‚¬250 million and there is the possible for such part to be farther increased.
The fishing methods adopted for tuna piscary in Mauritius include purse Seine, longline and FADs. Tuna is exported to our chief market which is the EU. Mauritius benefits from several understandings such as Mauritius EU fishing Agreement, Fishing Agreement with the Federation of Japan Tuna Fisheries Cooperative Association, Fishing Agreement with Seychelles and Memorandum of Understanding with Mozambique. These understandings help Mauritius to bask discriminatory market entree.
In each ocean, there are Regional Fisheries Management Organisations ( RFMO ) which manage tuna and tuna like species. In the Indian Ocean, it is the IOTC which ensures the preservation and optimal use of stocks.
In Mauritius, the export of tuna histories for 90 % of entire export value of seafood merchandises. However, factors such as local gimmick, foreign gimmick, rising prices rate, figure of licenses, transhipment, employment, foreign exchange, market monetary value and imports affect the export. The industry can be a major pillar in the hereafter merely if Mauritius can guarantee sustainability in its development.
The Mauritanian Tuna Industry History
Before 1979, tuna was fished in Mauritius chiefly with longlines and pole-and-line. The longline piscary started in 1970, but stopped operations shortly after. Two little longliners started once more in 1980, but, their gimmick was excessively low and had to halt operations. By 1995, there was merely one longliner from Mauritius. In 2004, three foreign owned vass came to run in the Mauritanian H2O in longline piscary. Their fishing country was spread widely in the Western Indian Ocean. In 2007, the figure of licenses provided to longliners increased to 141, largely from Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Indonesia, Belize and Malaysia. In that twelvemonth, a sum of 15580 metric tons of tuna and related species were transhipped by these longliners of which 4268 metric tons were caught in the Mauritanian EEZ. ( NPOA-IUU, 1995 )
The bag Seine tuna started to run in 1979 with the first Mauritanian bag seiner ‘Lady Sushil ‘ . It was operated as a joint venture affecting Mauritius Tuna Fishing and Canning Enterprise and two Nipponese companies. From so, it made open uping piscary in the northern sector of the South West Indian Ocean and was one of the vass to corroborate the successful operation of bag seiner in the country. Eight old ages subsequently, it was joined by a 2nd vas ‘Lady Sushil II ‘ . A 3rd bag seiner ‘Cirne ‘ started operation in 1991. Until 1997, they were runing for the local canning mill. However, due to fiscal jobs and alterations in the disposal of the mill, the vass were sold off in 2000 and the mills now rely on import of natural stuffs to run into its demands ( NPOA-IUU, 1995 ) .
Role of the Tuna Industry in Mauritius
Investing in the seafood hub in December 2005 amounted to Rs 2 billion. This sector is being promoted by the authorities in order to transform Mauritius into an impressive seafood hub for trading, warehousing, processing, distribution and export of fresh, chilled and frozen altogether or value added seafood merchandises ( Bauljeewon, 2011 ) . The Seafood hub is defined as “ An efficient and attractive environment for the supply of value added procedures and services related to the sourcing and selling of seafood merchandises ( Ministry of Fisheries, 2011 ) ” .
In the seafood hub, tuna occupies a important function. The balance of trade in 2010 amounted to Rs 2,308, an betterment from that of 2009 which was Rs 1,932.9. It can be noted that tuna constitutes a high % in our fish trade. Processing of tuna contributes to Rs. 10.1 billion ( 7.8 processing and 2.3 re-export ) . Mauritius was found to be among the two biggest exporters of transcribed tuna to the EU market among the ACP states. It ranks 3rd in footings of overall EU canned tuna external supply, 3rd in footings of volume of overall EU tuna loins external supply and in footings of value. ( Ministry of Fisheries Annual Report, 2010 )
At present there is no Mauritanian vas engaged in the industrial tuna piscary. All tuna fishing vass runing in the Mauritius EEZ are foreign-flagged vass which operate under fishing licenses. Fishing licenses are issued to purse seiners and longliners. Most of tuna fishing activities in the Mauritius EEZ is carried out by longline fishing vass.
In Mauritius, there are two chief houses which are engaged in the processing of tuna. They are Princes Tuna Mauritius Ltd and Thon des Mascareignes. Not merely in footings of exports, the tuna industry besides contributes in footings of employment and nutrient security.
Princes Tuna Mauritius Ltd
Tuna canning operation started in 1972 with natural stuffs from Madagascar and subsequently from Maldives ( NPOA-IUU, 1995 ) . Since 2000, a modern new tining mill which is the Princes Tuna Mauritius Ltd was set up at Riche Terre. The mill is operated under a British-Mauritian joint venture. It has a processing capacity of 220 metric tons per twenty-four hours and a labour force of 2300 in 2010. The new mill satisfies all the norms and ordinances for export to the European Markets.
Thon diethylstilbestrols Mascareignes
A 2nd processing works, Thon des Mascareignes started its operation in 2005 and is a subordinate of the IBL Group. This mill is soon involved chiefly in the production of tuna pubess which are exported both to European and non-European markets. It processes 30 % of Albacore, 30 to 40 % of Yellowfin and 30 to 40 % of Skipjack. It offers a broad scope of merchandises viz. industrial, semi-industrial and finished merchandises. The natural stuffs are imported chiefly from Seychelles. The mill has a day-to-day processing capacity of about 230 metric tons and a labour force of 1800. The entire export of processed tuna amounted to 20,716 metric tons in 2011.
Thon des Mascareignes continuously upgrades its premium merchandises which aims at a existent discover in gustatory sensation. A Chef keeps looking for new spirits and taking the ingredients with attention. The packaging alterations harmonizing to demands with glass jars, doypacks and tins.
Methods of tuna fishing in Mauritius
There are assorted signifiers of industrial tuna fishing viz. purse Seine, longline, Pole-and-line and troll. In the Indian Ocean, purse Seine or longline ships and FADs methods are adopted. Tuna bag seining involves puting a big wall of cyberspace, about one stat mi in length to encircle tuna schools and ensnare them ( FAO, 2001 ) . Longlining involves the usage of line with baited maulerss as fishing cogwheels. It is made up of baskets which consist of a chief horizontal line about 250 to 800 m long with 4 to 15 branch-lines each with a wire leader and a hook. FADs are drifting objects that are designed and located to pull tunas. A FAD is made up of a big ground tackle, a heavy-duty moorage concatenation of about 30m long and a moorage rope. The rope and concatenation are joined by assorted bonds, rope connections, splicings and thimbles. A flag is attached to be able to turn up them. They may be placed in shallow Waterss 50-100m or deep Waterss 500-1500m ( NPOA-IUU, 1995 ) .
International Agreements for Tuna activities.
Mauritius has longstanding trade relationships with several economic spouses including the EU, US and Japan. Under specific trade understandings, it benefits from unrestricted responsibility free entree for its seafood merchandises. It has besides secured discriminatory entree to many markets including EU through the Economic Partnership Agreement ( EPA ) , with the US under the African Growth and Opportunity Act ( AGOA ) , with Eastern and Southern Africa through the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa ( COMESA ) and Southern African Development Community ( SADC ) . Mauritius besides has fishing Agreements with the EU and the Federation of Japan Tuna Fisheries Cooperative Associations. These understandings allow the EU and Japan to angle in its EEZ provided they pay a license fee. Mauritanian fishing vass are able to angle in the Seychelles Waterss due to the bilateral understandings. Mauritius, Madagascar and Seychelles have benefitted from discriminatory entree to the EU market which in bend has enabled them to put more in their tuna canneries. In sum footings, the ACP portion of production of transcribed tuna in the universe experienced a rise of 5 % to 12 % during the old ages of 1976 to 2003 ( Oceanic Development, 2005 ) . To turn to duty eroding, tuna processors in Mauritius have contributed significantly to organize the African Tuna.
ACP-EU Fisheries Access Agreements
Bilateral Fisheries Agreements between the EU and developing states existed since long as the Common Fisheries Policy. These understandings show the end of the EU to assist the these states in their development. There are 16 Fisheries Partnership Agreements at the minute. This enables EU fleet the right to utilize resources which its spouses can non or make non desire to work. The EPA between the ACP and EU- the ACP-EU Partnership Agreement existed 2000 with the sign language of the Cotonou Agreement ( Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, 2006 ) .
The tuna fishing understandings gives European the ability to obtain license fee under each understanding. Each ocean has to be controlled by international direction such Regional Fisheries Management Organisations ( RFMOs ) which are regulated under the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission ( IOTC ) for the Indian Ocean, International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas ( ICCAT ) for the Atlantic Ocean and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commision ( IATTC ) for East Pacific ( ISSF, 2012 ) . The understandings provide a legal model for accessing these resources and the tunnage of tuna that may be caught in the H2O of the state concerned, is specified together with the figure of vass that will have a licence ( ISSF, 2012 ) .
Since the European Union ( EU ) histories for some 60 % of the ACP piscary exports by value, European market is an of import participant for ACP exports of fish and fish merchandises ( Gorez, 2003 ) . Fisheries dealingss between ACP and EU are governed by assorted instruments like ACP National Fisheries Policies, EU Common Fisheries Policy, Development Cooperation Instruments and Bilateral Fisheries Agreements between the EU and ACP provinces ( Gorez, 2003 ) . The Bilateral Agreements facilitate entree to piscaries resources through payment of entree fees which generate income for ACP states together with joint venture activities ( Gorez, 2003 ) .
In 1975, the EU and ACP signed their first co-operation understanding in Lome , Togo ( Mensah, 2010 ) . After four such Lome Conventions, a broader partnership understanding was signed in Cotonou Benin, in June 2000 known as the Cotonou Agreement ( Mensah, 2010 ) . The aims behind this understanding were chiefly to accomplish sustainable development and poorness decrease. Under the Lome Convention, ACP states such as Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire, Madagascar, Mauritius, Papua New Guinea and Seychelles which are among the chief exporters of tuna to the EU market benefit from zero and unanswered duty on their canned tuna since 1982 ( Mensah, 2010 ) . This discriminatory duty has helped ACP states to vie with Asiatic tuna bring forthing states such as Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia and Vietnam which face 24 % of responsibility duty ( Campling, 2007 ) . This understanding is so really of import for ACP states to advance and hike up their trade ( Campling, 2007 ) . Without this, tuna industries in Seychelles, Mauritius, Papua New Guinea and Ivory Coast would hold been less competitory in the European market. The export public presentation of these states flexible joints on, a batch on the discriminatory entree enjoyed under the Agreement ( Mensah, 2010 ) .
In 2008, the Cotonou Agreement was replaced by EPA which is at the chief economic and trade cooperation pillar of the Cotonou Agreement. The Economic Partnership Agreement ( EPA ) will easy take barriers to merchandise between the EU and the ACP states ( Campling, 2007 ) . EPAs are based on World Trade Organisation ( WTO ) ordinances and set EU and ACP trade on a secure and sustainable footing. The ACP states are divided into 6 parts which are Caribbean, the Pacific, East and Southern Africa ( ESA ) , the SADC, West Africa ( ECOWAS ) and Central Africa ( CEMAC ) which are negociating their ain EPA ( Campling, 2007 ) . EPA purpose at incorporating ACP states in the planetary economic system through mutual entree to the two markets and regional integrating with the accent on advancing sustainable development and contributing towards poorness obliteration ( European Commission, 2013 ) .
EPAs make it easier for trade and investing to develop. With the Agreement, the ACP states benefit from no quotas and responsibilities on export of tuna to the EU ( European Commission, 2013 ) . This helps them to acquire entree over a larger market, that is, European Free Trade Association ( EFTA ) including Switzerland and Norway. EU consumers will profit from lower monetary values ( European Commission, 2013 ) . The remotion of trade barriers enable ACP counties to vie with bigger Asiatic providers on the EU market.
By accessing the EU market, ACP states are able to spread out their industry. This aid in hiking and beef uping trade and contributes positively in the variegation of their economic systems. Equally far as EU consumers are concerned, they benefit from a assortment of tuna merchandises and have greater pick ( European Commission, 2013 ) .
EPA understanding creates regional market. This contributes to the development of trade in ACP states. With better techniques for tuna production, production capacity will increase. In the long tally, trade will assist ACP states prosper and bring forth more income. The addition in demand for EU expertness will non merely profit ACP states but will besides bring forth occupations for the EU population. So, both will profit.
Manufacturers Association comprise of 6 states viz. Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar, Kenya, Ghana and the Ivory Coast and 8 processors. This is to seek and guarantee that the EU hears the African voice. The chief concern of Mauritanian processors is to maintain market entree to the European Union.
Discriminatory market entree
The EU has granted market entree to the ACP states since 1964 under the consecutive Lome conventions and Cotonou Agreement ( European External Action Service, 2012 ) . Mauritius is a member of the Cotonou Agreement ( European External Action Service, 2012 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: //eeas.europa.eu/delegations/mauritius/eu_mauritius/trade_relation/index_en.htm The partnership understanding aims to advance and foster trade between the ACP states and the EU. This enables ACP states to profit from zero and unanswered duty on fish and piscary merchandises exported to the EU by fulfilling the needed standards and regulations of beginning ( Mensah, 2010 ) . Discriminatory entree is besides enjoyed in the USA under the GSP and the AGOA ( Wong, ) .
Mauritius EU fishing Agreement
In November 1990, a fishing understanding was signed between the EU and Mauritius under which five protocols were set up. They defined the fishing possibilities, license fees and fiscal compensation for the period 03 December 2003 to 02 December 2007 ( European Commission, 2012 ) .
Fishing Agreement with the Federation of Japan Tuna Fisheries Cooperative Association
This understanding was signed in May 2000 to let Nipponese tuna long line drives to angle in the Mauritanian Waterss and is renewed on a annual footing ( Ministry of Agro Industries and Fisheries, 2007 ) .
Fishing Agreement with Seychelles
Two fishing Agreements were signed in March 2005 between Mauritius and Seychelles on a reciprocality footing. They defined the fishing possibilities for 12 bag seiners and 20 long line drives in each other ‘s Waterss and the license fees ( Ministry of Agro Industries and Fisheries, 2007 ) .
Memorandum of Understanding ( MOU ) with Mozambique
A MOU in the field of piscaries was signed with Mozambique in Mauritius in March 2002. This was related to bilateral investing in fishing, aquaculture and fish processing ( Ministry of Agro Industries and Fisheries, 2007 ) .
Indian Ocean Tuna Commission
It is recognized that the tuna industry in the South West Indian Ocean ( SWIO ) part is under force per unit area due to the lessening in production of the bag Seine fleet as a effect of buccaneering. There are different RFMO ‘s that are involved in the direction of tuna and tuna like species. In the Indian Ocean and next seas, the IOTC is responsible for the direction of tuna and tuna like species ( WWF, 2005 ) . It is an intergovernmental administration established by the FAO fundamental law under Article XIV ( WWF, 2005 ) . Its aim is to advance cooperation among its members and responsible for the preservation and optimal development of stocks through appropriate direction and promote sustainable development of piscaries in Mauritius and its neighbouring countries ( United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, 2012 ) . Mauritius acceded the IOTC on 10 October 1994 ( Ministry of Fisheries, 2012 ) . It adheres to all declarations sing the sustainable development of tuna resources. In this regard, the National Plan of Action has been put in topographic point to supervise and command fishing activities in order to battle IUU in the part.
Figure 2: IOTC Area of Competence
Factors impacting the development of the tuna industry
Cost of inputs
The major factors lending to the operating costs are natural stuff, labor and fuel costs ( Miyake, 2005 ) . The most of import input of the industry is the tuna fish itself. It is normally sold fresh, frozen and canned. The state of affairs of the monetary value of tuna is dynamic and therefore alterations quickly due to many factors ( Pan, 2004 ) . Seasonality – of both fishing ( low production in the Indian Ocean occurs during the European summer ) and markets ( better monetary values occur in the EU because of increased demand during the European summer ) . Rising labor and fuel cost lead to a rise in operating costs thereby impacting the monetary value of tuna. A rise in the monetary value of tuna will increase cost of production of the processing industry and finally cut down net income and future investing. Conversely, if tuna is inexpensive, cost of production will fall and the industry can increase production and supply at a lower monetary value in the local and foreign markets to increase its fight.
The development of new engineering in the tuna industry is identified by Miyake ( 2005b ) . Through more effectual fishing techniques and more sophisticated vass, there is an addition in the productiveness and hence supply ( Miyake, 2010 ) . However, it is of import that angling enterprisers have entree to the necessary fiscal resources to get these new techniques in order to transport out invention in their activities. Besides, betterments in footings of the usage of many extenuation device and processs such as circle maulerss alternatively of J-hooks may impact the fishing efficiency ( Miyake, 2005a ) . Apart from the traditional fishing cogwheels such as long line and bag Seine, today it is possible to turn up schools of tuna at sea by utilizing echo sounders and the support of orbiter system ( Dagorn, 2012 ) . Further, invention in tining techniques contributes to better productiveness and efficiency ( Laxe, 2008 ) .
The conditions, cyclones and tsunamis affect the gimmick and supply of tuna. Harmonizing to Schon ( 2000 ) , Roberts and Sauer ( 1994 ) , catch variableness are linked with wind way, turbidness, sea surface temperatures and oceanographic phenomena such as upwelling and climatic conditions. But, more of import is planetary warming which changes the temperature of the sea and therefore change the current form and distribution of tuna. Generally, tuna schools are extremely migratory species and they move in the Indian Ocean during summer season.
Illegal, Unreported & A ; Unregulated fishing ( IUU ) and Piracy
IUU fishing is a major menace to the long-run sustainability of the universe ‘s oceans ( World reappraisal of piscaries and aquaculture, 2012 ) . They occur when fishing is performed without permission to relevant province, unreported to them and unregulated that is by altering their flags to non-contracting parties ( Schmidt, 2004 ) . IUU angling depletes fish stocks, destroys marine home grounds and distorts competition peculiarly in developing states. The EU and the US are the universe largest importers of seafood. On the 26th September 2011, they signed the joint understanding in Washington to increase cooperation against IUU. ‘Piracy is another menace to the tuna piscaries ‘ , highlighted Joel Morgan, Seychelles Minister of Environment, Natural resources and conveyance ( Kyama, 2011 ) . Seychelles gross has suffered a bead of 30 % over the past twelvemonth due to pirate onslaughts originated in Somalia. The Government of Seychelles is working together with the EU, the US, India and other spouses to police its Waterss and set up a regional VMS with the support of orbiter system ( Kyama, 2011 ) .
Piracy has emerged as a possible menace to fishing activities being carried out in the Mauritian zone besides. As a effect, this may discourage local and foreign companies to venture and investing possibilities will be hazardous. Due to buccaneering, the figure of EU bag seiners runing in the Indian Ocean has fallen taking to a autumn in the supply for arising fish for the Mauritanian mills. The last five old ages have seen a decrease in angling attempt by 30 % taking to diminish on production by 15-20 % . In add-on, uninterrupted addition in costs chiefly due to security has led to a rise in the cost of fish. ( Robert, 2012 )
The handiness of sufficient financess to expeditiously pull off processing installations are cardinal factors in the fishing industry. SSA states have been able to prolong the operations due to foreign direct investing from states to which they supply their fish. These investings were obtained by foreign workss which operate in the SSA states viz. StarKist in Ghana and Seychelles and Princes ‘ in Mauritius. These workss produce for the EU market, under labels owned by their parent houses ( United States International Trade Commission, 2007 ) .
Government Policy and Agreements
Havice and Campling ( 2010 ) highlighted that institutional and political ordinances are necessary to command the entree for tuna piscaries. The authorities can act upon the supply of the tuna by utilizing revenue enhancement and subsidies or grants. A rise in revenue enhancement on the net incomes of tuna fishing companies will increase their costs and cut down net incomes. Then, some companies may make up one’s mind to contract their activities while others can halt wholly. Conversely, if a subsidy or grant for the invention in angling fleets is given, companies will be encouraged to put more in tuna fishing. In Mauritius, the Ministry of Fisheries provides the necessary support services to such companies and ensures enforcement to forestall illegal fishing. Many states issue licenses to restrict the entry distant H2O fleets which come to reap in their districts and is common in many national piscaries ( Townsend, 1990 ; Wilen, 1988, and Sinclair, 1983 ) . The EU is the most active foreign participant. Issue of licenses impacts a batch on exports. The distant H2O fleets normally land their gimmicks in the SSA state ‘s ports, which lead to a rise in the supply of fish to local canneries ( United States International Trade Commission, 2007 ) .
Licenses are provided to angling companies from Taiwan, Japan, Korea, China and EU states to angle in our EEZ under specific conditions. An understanding exists with Seychelles over the licence fee which is discriminatory in return for cheaper tuna exported to Mauritius to be used as natural stuff for canning. Harmonizing to Guidetti ( 2006 ) , the figure of Marine Protected Areas established has increased significantly in recent old ages. These countries are non merely seen as nature preservation instrument but as a utile tool against worsening coastal fish resources every bit good as pulling tourers ( Badalamenti et al. , 2000 ; Claudet et al. , 2006 ) . Furthermore, since the bulk of tuna stocks have been overfished, regulative steps are being enforced so as to protect the staying stock. These steps include gimmick quota and attempt restrictions but besides other steps such as time-area
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e01.pdf
( Importance, 2000 ) Importance, A. E. ( 2000 ) . Chapter 3 Managing Tuna Fisheries. Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPACIFICISLANDS/Resources/3-chapter+3.pdf
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.uncsd2012.org/content/documents/216Issues % 20Brief % 20No % 204 % 20Oeans_Rio20_FINAL.pdf