Agricultural Development And Rural Poverty Linkages In Pakistan Economics Essay

This survey was undertaken in the rainfed Pothwar of the Punjab to measure the wheat harvest state of affairs and expect the wheat production under the current drouth status in order to propose policy options to guarantee nutrient security. The rainfed Pothwar chiefly comprises Attock, Rawalpindi, Chakwal, Islamabad and Jhelum territories. Overall, 322 husbandmans were interviewed from 9 tehsils of the country. The operational country of the sample respondents was rainfed in all sample territories except Jhelum where about 46 percent operational country was found irrigated. Average operational retention of the sample respondents was 5.46, 7.29, 8.04 and 13.42 estates in Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Chakwal and Attock territories respectively.Wheat plantation was delayed on most of the sample farms during 2009-10 as compared to last twelvemonth due to drought conditions and low wet in the dirt. The country under wheat harvest decreased on sample farms in Rawalpindi and Chakwal while it increased in Jhelum and Attock as compared with last year.Area allocated to assorted assortments was recorded as Inqlab-91 ( 35 % ) , Chakwal-86 ( 18 % ) , Bhakar-2002 ( 13 % ) , Sehar ( 8 % ) and Uqab ( 3 % ) during 2009-10. During 2008-09, the wheat assortments grown on sample farms were Inqlab-91 ( 48 % ) , Chakwal-86 ( 17 % ) , Bhakar-2002 ( 13 % ) , Sehar ( 5 % ) and Uqab ( 3 % ) . The country under wheat assortment of Inqlab-91 declined from 48 per centum in 2008-09 to 35 per centum in 2009-10 which was chiefly replaced by Sehar and Chakwal-86 wheat assortments. This was attributed due to handiness of seed of Bhakar-86.The sample husbandmans used to replace the seed being used on their farms after two to three old ages and chief beginning of the replaced seed was seed traders followed by fellow husbandmans. No difference was observed in the planting method in both old ages as about all of the country was planted through drill with the exclusion of merely about 1-2 per centum. The bulk of the husbandmans ( 75 % ) reported that there was no deficit of DAP or NP during this twelvemonth. Farmers were anticipating a output loss of more than 50 per centum this twelvemonth due to moisture emphasis as compared with a output loss of merely 3 per centum last twelvemonth due to low wet. Farmers reported output losingss runing from 18 per centum in Jhelum to about 69 per centum in Chakwal. This diminution in output was mostly due to really low precipitation degrees at booting and grain formation phases ( mid-February to early March ) .Total production loss on the footing of reduced output would be about 47 per centum as compared to last twelvemonth. In quantitative footings there would be less wheat production of about 60 maunds per farm. In pecuniary footings the loss per farm from the less grain production is estimated at Rs.56638 per farm. With low grain production, there would besides be less wheat straw production and deficit of dry fresh fish for farm animal. The monetary value of wheat straw is expected to increase this twelvemonth ensuing in provender deficit for farm animal in the survey country. There was no important difference in the cost of production as the entire cost of production was Rs.13305 in 2008-09 as compared to Rs.13348 per acre in 2009-10. The gross income during 2008-09 was Rs.21230 per acre ensuing in net income of Rs.7924 per acre. During the current twelvemonth due to low expected output depending upon the harvest state of affairs the gross income was to the melody of Rs.11216 ensuing in a loss of Rs.2132 per acre to the husbandmans in the rainfed Pothwar. The bulk of husbandmans ( 74 % ) were of the position that current rainfall in March, 2010 would hold good impact on this twelvemonth wheat, 15 per centum reported no impact, 7 per centum less than normal and 4 per centum said that it would hold normal impact on wheat. The sample husbandmans were worried about their nutrient security due to low wheat production this twelvemonth. They have to buy wheat from the market. Merely few husbandmans ( 4 % ) reported that they have to buy it from other fellow husbandmans with excess wheat. A little proportion of sample husbandmans ( 10 % ) reported that they have to buy dry fresh fish besides as the wheat straw would besides be deficient to run into their demand for farm animal. Keeping in position the expected high monetary values of wheat straw, few husbandmans ( 5 % ) reported that the present dry enchantment will oblige them to sell their animate beings. One fifth of the sample husbandmans reported that they would hold to make more labour work and fight difficult to procure nutrient for their households and carry through feed demand of their farm animal. Overall upgrading rainfed agribusiness requires incorporate attacks to societal and ecological direction. The incorporate attack to rainwater direction must turn to links between investings and hazard decrease and between rainwater direction and land and harvests direction. There is besides need for inventions in direction of H2O that requires fresh engineerings and patterns. Schemes for upgrading, including engineerings such as H2O harvest home and preservation agribusiness are by and large good known, but need proper presentation and publicity for acceptance in the rainfed countries. Keeping in position the scarceness of H2O in rainfed countries there is demand to reap more harvests per bead of H2O available in the signifier of dug Wellss, mini dikes and little dikes by put ining the high efficiency irrigation systems and traveling for preciseness agribusiness.

Appraisal of Optimum Field Plot Size and Shape in Paddy Yield Trial

This survey was to gauge the optimal secret plan size with the form for field research experiments on paddy output test sing the consequence of secret plan size on variableness in output of harvest every bit good as analyzing the coefficients of fluctuation of different secret plan sizes and forms of secret plans. The informations were collected from Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore, Punjab on rice line T5 in close coaction with Rice Program, PARC. A individual rice line T5 harvest country of 12m ten 24 m was selected indiscriminately to see all direction patterns every bit unvarying as possible. Output informations were recorded individually from each basic unit of 1m ten 1 m. Grains from each of the 288 basic units were harvested, bagged, threshed, cleaned, dried, and weighed individually. Yield difference between these basic units was taken as a step of the country ‘s dirt heterogeneousness. Soil productiveness contour map was drawn to see diagrammatically the productiveness degree of the experimental site based on traveling norms of next units. Measures of cardinal inclination and scattering were computed for different combinations of basic units to find the consequence of secret plan sizes on variableness in output. Variance among secret plans, discrepancy per unit country and coefficients of fluctuation of assorted secret plan sizes and forms were worked out for the finding of secret plan size and form. The values of average squares among horizontal strips and perpendicular strips indicated that way of the birthrate gradient was more marked from North to south. The consequences of contour map showed the tendency of dirt birthrate from north to south instead than east to west. The comparable discrepancy ( V ) and comparative information ( RI % ) revealed that comparable discrepancy and comparative information additions with each unit addition in the secret plan size. Maximal curvature technique described the relationship between coefficients of fluctuation and secret plan sizes. In this technique, the coefficients of fluctuation decreased quickly up to 18 basic units with each unit addition in the secret plan size.This implies that the secret plan of rectangular form that is ( 6mx3m ) basic unit was the most effectual in cut downing dirt fluctuation and is hence considered the optimal secret plan size. This estimated secret plan size is larger than the secret plan size of 3mx5m by and large used for paddy output test at research Station. The value of dirt heterogeneousness index was found to be ( 0.12 ) which showed a grade of low relationship among the experimental units. The low value of dirt heterogeneousness index ( b=0.120 indicated a small spot heterogeneousness among 288 basic units. The survey consequences indicated that the coefficients of fluctuation ( 35.24, 23.80, 21.50, 19.49 and 17.86 per centum ) diminution with square form of secret plan sizes ( 1m2, 2m2, 3m2, 4m2, 6m2 ) severally and this lessening is maximal with the square form secret plan of size ( 6mx6m ) basic units. As a consequence, square form seems better for big secret plan sizes in the survey country. The square form secret plans are suggested when the research workers are non familiar with the birthrate form of the experimental country. As respects form, square form secret plans are suited and better the quality of research to the coevals of more sound and feasible engineerings which will finally assist to cut down the productiveness shortage.

Agricultural Development and Rural Poverty Linkages in Pakistan

Poverty relief, peculiarly rural poorness, is a serious issue presently faced by the extremely thickly settled and developing states of the universe. The issue of rural poorness is hard to grok without a thorough scrutiny of interconnected facets of alterations in the agribusiness. The primary aim of this survey is to bring forth a comprehensive empirical base about the determiners of rural poorness relief in Pakistan for the agricultural research contrivers, policy shapers and development practicians in the state.

The consequences show that Pakistan ‘s agribusiness sector has poverty decrease potencies in the long-run. The positively conducive factors are mean operational retention, country switching from major to minor harvests, increasing land usage strength and heightening agricultural recognition sums. The factors negatively impacting rural poorness relief attempts were rural population growing and lifting rising prices. The function of farm animal productiveness sweetening in poorness relief was out of the blue negative.

There is a demand of discovery in major harvests ‘ production engineering for bring forthing more employment chances every bit good as salvaging country from major harvests for its shifting to minor harvests. The consequences provide utile indicants for the R & A ; D attempts in Pakistan. For case, the worsening mean farm size will ensue in increasing poorness, possibly due to negative farm size and productiveness relationship needs to be checked by inventing new agricultural engineerings best suited to little sized farms. The poorness relief detering consequences of major harvests indicates a demand of discovery in their production engineering in order to bring forth more employment chances every bit good as salvaging country from major harvests for its shifting to minor harvests. On the other manus, the poorness relief detering consequences of livestock productiveness sweetening besides need due consideration of both the research workers and development contrivers. The research needs to invent more cost-efficient agencies increasing farm animal productiveness while strong and effectual public policy support in the signifier of implementing market ordinances is required for incorporating nationwide spread farm animal husbandmans with the market for selling their merchandises ( unrecorded animate beings and the milk ) in a more compensable manner.

Role of Agriculture in Pakistan ‘s Economy: An Intersectoral Linkages Analysis

Under the philosophy of developing urban industrial sector utilizing human and agricultural marketable excesss, Pakistan ‘s planning history shows that agribusiness is largely ignored, but it has drawn attending of the policy shapers when the state has faced either extended harvest failures due to insect/pest or disease onslaught or nutrient production fell short of demand.

There is a demand to beef up inter-sectoral linkages Pakistan on the evidences like: a ) addition in demand for high value processed agricultural merchandises induced by addition in per capita income, urbanisation and internationalisation in nutrient ingestion wonts ; B ) significant promotions in harvest production, post-harvest and nutrient processing engineerings, infrigidation installations, conveyance, supply concatenation engineerings and methods ; degree Celsiuss ) tremendous enlargement in international trade in high value nutrient merchandises ; and d ) accent on publicity of agricultural variegation towards high value agricultural merchandises in development policy paperss of the state. All these besides call for following a well-coordinated inter-sectoral attack towards accomplishing high economic growing. Understanding the inter-sectoral linkages could cast of import penetrations to policymakers in placing the optimum policies to go on farther economic growing in these states.

The aims of this survey are: I ) to understand the linkages between agribusiness and remainder of the economic system ; two ) to look into the being of long-term growing relationships among different sectors ; and, iii ) to find the impacts of the passage on agribusiness and other sectors.

About the function of agribusiness, a long-term relationship with other sectors of the economic system like fabrication services and trade was found. The trade and services besides have long-term co-integration with agribusiness. But such integrating was non found with fabrication. For enhanced agribusiness growing, Pakistan has to reform fabrication and export publicity agency in line with the agribusiness sector. The opposite policy shall non work.

Export Competitiveness of Horticulture Sector of Pakistan

This Study examines Pakistan ‘s export fight of horticultural green goods by utilizing trade-based indices. Under horticultural harvests, fruits plus veggies, fresh fruits and veggies were selected as groups and tangerines, Citrus reticulatas, and Onion were selected as single harvests for empirical survey. The survey aimed at measuring the comparative and competitory advantage of Pakistan in the selected trade goods. The consequences showed that Pakistan does non hold a comparative and competitory advantage for fruits plus veggies class during 1990 to 1998, nevertheless Pakistan attained comparative and competitory advantage in 1999 and maintained it up to 2006 with few exclusions but net trade advantage for fruit plus vegetable class was achieved in 2004. In the fresh fruits net class the consequences demonstrated that Pakistan has comparatively higher comparative and competitory advantage as compared to fruits plus vegetable as whole, all relevant indexs were encouraging and explained Revealed comparative advantage and net trade advantage with few exclusions for the whole period depicted in the analysis. In veggies fresh class, fruits plus vegetable class and onion Pakistan showed a passage from comparative and competitory disadvantage to comparative and competitory advantage during the period under analysis. The analysis for single harvests i.e. , Tangerines, Citrus reticulatas, depicted that it maintained comparatively higher export fight as compared to other classs for the whole period under analysis. Pakistan ‘s comparative and competitory advantages showed an addition in all trade goods for the period under analysis.

Feasibility of Sugarcane Juice Manufacturing in Pakistan ‘s Punjab

The undertaking cost estimations for the proposed “ Sugarcane Juice Business ” have been formulated on the footing of treatments with industry stakeholders and experts. The projections cover the cost of land, machinery and equipment including office equipment, fixtures, etc. The operations have been calculated for 300 yearss on annul footing. The fiscal analysis reveals that sugarcane juice at the graduated table of 100 tones per twenty-four hours suppression will give 691.20 million rupees yearly with entire variable cost of 435.84 million per annum. The analysis farther narrowed down on per battalion degree that yields Rs.3.00. As about 90 per centum of the ingredients is sugarcane juice, hence, the border might be less as compared with other fruit juices because fruit juice contain merely 4 per centum Fruit Pulp and 80 per centum treated H2O while 10 -16 per centum Citric Acid, Fruit Flavor and Preservative.

Impact of Escalating Energy and Fertilizers Prices on the Productivity of Rice Crop in the Punjab-Pakistan

Farm degree study of rice turning countries was conducted during November 2008 and four territories viz. : Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Hafizabad were purposively selected. From each territory, 20 rice agriculturists were selected through purposive sampling technique. Therefore, the entire figure of sample respondents was counted to be 80. Datas sing variables of involvement were collected through personal interview method in order to run into the aim of this survey.

The impact of intensifying monetary values was observed in the usage of agriculturists as big husbandmans used 12.68 per centum less agriculturist in 2008 than 2007, where as little and average husbandmans used 15.74 per centum and 14.46 per centum less agriculturists severally in 2008 than 2007. About 10 per centum less usage in footings of mean figure of plowing were observed by the little husbandmans ‘ class while by medium and big husbandmans it remained about 4.52 per centum and 2.31 per centum less as compared during the harvest old ages of 07 and 08. Sing fertilisers, lower usage of fertiliser was observed by all the husbandmans ‘ classs over two old ages period. The little husbandmans have used about 9.76 per centum less measure of weedicide while medium and big were found to be utilizing 4.76 per centum and 2.83 per centum less measure of weedicides for the obliteration of weeds from the rice harvest for the back-to-back harvest old ages of 07 and 08. The insecticide monetary values were found higher to the melody of 42 per centum during 07 and 08 old ages of rice harvest cultivation.

Canal H2O was non available as against the demands of the agriculture community for rice harvest. The usage of irrigation H2O through tubing good H2O was found 10 % less for all the class of husbandmans during 2008 as compared to 2007 usage. The application of tubing good H2O to rice harvest was affected badly ( 13 % ) due to intensifying monetary values of Diesel particularly on the little farms of the country, while the least ( 5.6 % ) impact was observed on big farms.

The highest cost addition alteration to the extent of 48 per centum was observed in instance of little husbandmans compared to big husbandmans who exhibited 32 per centum alteration over one twelvemonth period. The overall usage of Diesel was found worsening ( 27 % -20 % ) for different classs of the husbandmans for the two back-to-back old ages 2007-2008 due to lifting monetary values of Diesel. Monetary values informations indicated that monetary value favoritism was besides predominating in the rural countries. Small husbandmans were observed paying higher monetary values than big and medium husbandmans. Water pumped out by electrical pumps was cheaper than the Diesel operated tubing Wellss. In this instance, it is recommended that joint installments of electrical tubing well for little husbandmans should be practiced. Data sing monetary values of combine reaper indicated a broad fluctuation runing from 38 per centum to 33 per centum. Discrimination in rates paid for combine crop per acre by little, medium and big husbandmans were besides noticed. Maximal difference in combine crop rates was observed in instance of little husbandmans than medium and big husbandmans. Overall, it was noticed that output per acre of supper basmati rice declined by 5 per centum during 2008 when compared with 2007. This decrease in output per acre was noticed maximal ( 5.43 % ) in instance of little husbandmans and the least ( 4.55 % ) in instance of big husbandmans during 2007 and 2008. This diminution in output was most likely due to less usage of inputs partially as a consequence of lifting monetary values of Diesel.

Overall, the end product monetary value of supper basmati rice rose by 12 per centum over and above the speculated period of one twelvemonth, 2007-2008. Again monetary value per mond received by little husbandmans was found 14 per centum lower in 2007 than 2008, while larger husbandmans had received 11 per centum less monetary value for Supper Basmati rice for the same period in the rice belt of Punjab state. Thus the little husbandmans were being exploited due to end product monetary value favoritism. Overall cost of production of rice harvest in the rice belt indicated that entire cost per acre ( Rs. 32921.9 ) was higher for the twelvemonth 2008 than 2007 ( Rs. 24605 per acre ) . Simultaneously, the cost benefit ratio analysis revealed that husbandmans were better off in 2007 compared to 2008 as they were acquiring higher returns to the magnitude of Rs. 1.62 as against the investing of Rs. 1 in twelvemonth 2007 than 2008 where return was Rs. 1.29 against an investing of Rs. 1 on rice production. Since little husbandmans were acquiring proficient information from the fellow husbandmans while medium and big husbandmans were geting advanced engineering of production information as they are more influential and continuously in touch with the extension and research organisations.

Appraisal of Harvest and Post Harvest Losses of Selected Fruits in Pakistan

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The present survey was planned to quantify the station crop losingss and bifurcate them at different phases of fruit handling to find the most important phase of station crop losingss in Citrus, Mango and Date fruits, and to invent policies for minimising crop and station crop losingss based on empirical evidences/information. To accomplish this, a sample of 606 stakeholders at different degrees of fruit harvest home and selling was taken to look into the extent of station crop losingss at different degrees of fruit handling through a study by using a well-structured series of questionnaires.

The survey identified that losingss at farm degree ( both harvest home and handling ) and at different phases of selling are immense in all types of the sample fruits. Although the harvest home of citrous fruit fruit was by and large done with scissor while Mangifera indica was largely harvested with hook and basket and day of the month was harvested with axe and brought down with the support of rope.

The other important country of losingss was at packing phase when the fruit is farther damaged due to pressing and got fungous infestation. In citrous fruit fruit, the complete loss was estimated to the melody of 81.91 kgs./ ton while the partial loss was 279.89 kgs/ton which decreased the value of fruit from 30 to 60 per centum at different phases under discrepancy degrees of partial losingss. The losingss were really high at sweeping and retail degrees for all the fruits. On an mean mango fruit complete losingss were estimated to the melody of 115.10 kgs/ton while, 153 kgs/ton were partly damaged resultantly, cut downing the monetary value ranges from 15 to 50 per centum.

The entire loss was estimated by adding complete and partial losingss. In Mangifera indica and citrous fruit, there was an overall loss of 30 and 37 per centum severally while, in fresh and dried day of the months it accounted for 26 and 36 per centum, severally.

Therefore, there is demand to develop engineerings compatible with the resources, demands and work force available to cut down the significant post-harvest losingss associated with fruits at different phases.

However, so, the attempts are required for up-scaling the capacity edifice of agriculturists and contractors through leaving accomplishment amongst the targeted groups of citrous fruit, Mangifera indica and day of the month choosers and baggers. Lot of attempts are required to educate and develop the husbandmans, labour involved in managing these fruits at different phases and the business communities involved throughout the supply concatenation sing station crop direction.

There is demand to develop engineerings that should non be capital intensive enabling that these may within the buying power of little entrepreneurs/farmers. Such engineerings will assist to bring forth the employment chances for the rural multitudes. For developing such engineerings both the research and development bureaus should work in co-ordinated for integrating the expertness from technology, biological ( trade good experts ) , nutrient engineering experts, societal scientists and extension agents. All these attempts are in great demand for up scaling the capacity of the stakeholders under the coveted cost effectual means every bit good as socially acceptable to the rural community of Pakistan.

Contractual Maize Production: A Case Study of Rafhan Maize Merchandises

The survey was conducted in two innovator countries of corn contract farming ( Chiniot and Okara ) and one emerging country of corn contract farming ( Lodhran ) developed by the Rafhan Maize Products. The informations were collected from 106 corn agriculturists ( 52 contracts and 54 non-contracts ) to gauge the cost of production of Maize for both contract and non-contract agriculturists.

Initially, one harvest of corn was harvested in Pakistan during winter season with an mean per acre output ranges from 10 to 15 maunds. Through contract farming system of Rafhan Maize Products, spring corn as a 2nd harvest is going a great part towards agricultural growing. The per acre output of spring corn harvest is 60-100 maunds. Better output of intercrossed corn as compared to conventional harvest is the major factor for cultivation of intercrossed corn. Ensured/better monetary value of corn, proviso of inputs ( seed and pesticide ) and packing stuff were the major factors for following contract farming system. Majority of the husbandmans were satisfied with the services provided by the company. However, in some instances, ailments of deficit of packing stuff, hold in payment, less payment of transit charges and long hours waiting at factory gate for disposal of end product were reported. This implies that Rafhan has to take necessary stairss for rectifications of husbandmans ‘ ailments. The contract husbandmans received relatively higher end product monetary values as compared to non-contract agriculturists. The difference was significantly higher in Lodhran site.

The entire cost of production for an acre of spring corn under contract and non-contract agriculture was Rs. 36626.97 and Rs. 37841.92 severally. The costs on seed & A ; sowing, works protection and harvest home & A ; convulsing operations were higher on non-contract farms as compared to contract farms. The ground may be due to provide of these points by the Rafhan Maize on control rates. This implies that come ining into contract farming decreases the entire production cost. The gross gross for seting an acre of spring corn for contract agriculture was Rs. 52237.39, which is Rs. 678.81 ac-1 higher than non-contract farms. These consequences imply that contract farming in intercrossed corn is more profitable as compared to non-contract agriculture.

The entire cost of production for an acre of fall corn under contract and non-contract agriculture was Rs. 34751.50 and Rs. 33645.29, severally. The gross gross for seting an acre of fall corn for contract agriculture was Rs. 35335.76, which is Rs. 6344.01 ac-1 higher than non-contract farms. These consequences imply that fall maize harvest cultivation was profitable endeavor in contract agriculture. Overall, economic additions in contract agriculture for both harvests ( spring and fall corn ) were higher as compared to non-contract agriculture.

Rafhan Maize Products merely contract and purchase end product of their assortments holding relatively low output every bit compared to other companies ‘ intercrossed assortments from the Lodhran site while these conditions are non applicable to Chiniot and Okara sites. It is suggested that unvarying contract footings and conditions should be followed for all over the state. Furthermore, Rafhan should present new corn intercrossed holding more yield potency as compared to bing assortments. The job of timely handiness of packing stuff was observed particularly in Lodhran site, it is hence suggested that handiness of packing stuff should be insured and long hours ( up to two yearss ) waiting at factory gate for disposal of end product may be minimized. Rafhan should raise transit charges of husbandmans ‘ end product harmonizing to the existent payment made by them to the transporters. Un-necessary hold in payment should be minimized for timely payment to the agriculturists which was pointed out by the agriculturists of Lodhran site.

Economic Analysis of Hybrid and Open Pollinatedvarieties of Maize in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The survey was planned to cover maximal territories of the state but due to jurisprudence and order state of affairs in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa six territories including Haripur, Swabi, Mansehera, Bannu, Nowshera and Peshawar were selected for the survey. The survey included both primary and secondary informations. Primary informations were collected through field studies utilizing a structured questionnaire while secondary informations were collected by confer withing the published informations from authorities and other paperss.

The findings of the survey revealed that more than 50 per centum of the entire country was devoted to maize harvest in the survey country with allotment to open pollinated assortments. The survey revealed that big figure of respondents purchased corns seed from seed traders. It is singular that more than 50 per centum of the respondents knew name of corn assortments and they had planted intercrossed assortments. It was found that 30/25 ( loanblend ) assortment was really popular and grown by bulk of the husbandmans. It was amazing to larn that unknown loanblend was the top giving up assortments in the survey country with an mean output of 42 maunds per acre. However, the overall mean output of the corn harvest in the survey country was 28 maunds per acre. The mean per acre cultivation cost of intercrossed and unfastened pollinated assortments were Rs. 16925 and Rs. 10782 per acre, severally. Seed monetary value and its sowing were the most dearly-won operations of intercrossed cultivars ‘ production. Overall, per acre production cost in the survey country was Rs. 15904. The study consequences revealed that intercrossed and unfastened pollinated cultivars gave net income worth Rs.10011/acre and Rs. 2678/acre, severally. However, per acre net income of maize harvest was estimated to the melody of Rs. 5856/acre. The highest benefit cost ratio was that of intercrossed 1:1.59 against 1:1.24 for unfastened pollinated cultivars. Majority of the husbandmans reported that non handiness of quality seed was the major job. However, low monetary value of corn, H2O deficit and high monetary value of inputs were the other major jobs restricted to the husbandmans in accomplishing high output from the corn harvest.

It is suggested that authorities should repair support monetary value of maize harvest before seeding like wheat harvest. The production of intercrossed and unfastened pollinated cultivars are really low in the survey country. The major grounds of low production in the survey country reported by the husbandmans were inferior quality of corn seed, non handiness of improved seed and its high cost. Therefore, the husbandmans suggested that authorities should purely look into the quality and ensured the timely handiness of improved seed. Attempts should be made to command the monetary value of seed. Maize research workers of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have released a figure of maize assortments. However, it is widely recognized that deficiency of seed generation system and hapless extension system has adversely affected the acceptance of these improved assortments. Keeping in position the importance of the harvest, figure of presentation secret plans and field yearss for broader varietal coverage should be increased at small town degree.

Measuring Maize Production Constraints in AJK

This survey was conducted to look into into assorted issues sing maize productiveness sweetening in AJK. For this intent, a comprehensive checklist was used to garner information on all related issues from popular corns countries of AJK, through questioning 100 corn agriculturists, group treatment and experts ‘ sentiment. Land retentions were found to be little in the country runing from an acre to 3 estates, while maize farms were 0.6 estates ( 6 kanals ) on norm in the country and about all the farm operators were proprietors in the sample. More than 90 per centum of the husbandmans in the country were utilizing inbred seed and merely 7 per centum were utilizing intercrossed corns seed. Sarhad White was the commonly corn assortment grown in AJK. Besides this, Kashmir Gold and Islamabad yellow were the other corn assortments grown in the country. Most of the husbandmans have obtained seed from agribusiness section and to some extent from fellow husbandmans ; nevertheless, the husbandmans were non satisfied with the quality of seed. Agriculturist was common in the survey country for cultivated land with 3 to 4 ploughings for maize harvest before seeding. Sowing with broadcast method and really low proportion was found with line method of seeding in the country. Maize was cultivated during the month of April in Danna country and in June after wheat in Bana vale. Farmers kept no record sing cultivated land, seeding day of the months, seeding method etc. Soil was found to be good with birthrate holding no job of salt and alkalinity. Soil eroding was controlled through plantation and retaining walls where, applicable. DAP and Urea were the common inorganic fertilisers used by the country husbandmans with 50 kilograms each of DAP and Urea per acre on norm in both the countries. DAP has been applied as basal fertiliser and Urea both every bit basal every bit good as top dressing vary from country to country. In rainfed country, Urea was applied as basal and as top dressing on irrigated farms. It was applied at per works bases manually at the phase of 2 pess works size ( about at tessling phase ) . Most of the inorganic fertilisers have been purchased from agribusiness section and from fertiliser traders up to some extent in the country. Fertilizer either purchased from section or traders ne’er have been checked for its enfranchisement by the husbandmans. Organic fertiliser ( FYM and domestic fowl litter ) application to maize harvest was found really common in the country with 3 to 4 tractor streetcars per acre. Almost 70 per centum of the organic fertiliser was produced at husbandman ‘s Fieldss and 30 per centum was found to be purchased. Most of the organic fertiliser was found stored in unfastened country and really less proportion of farming community covered it or stored in a cavity. None of the husbandmans had soil analysis and holding dirt map of foods demands. Stem bore bit, cutworm, and army worm were the insects that seldom attack maize harvest but non earnestly damaged the harvest. No disease was reported in both the countries. Few husbandmans reported smut onslaught but non a significant harm.

Weedss job particularly ganaar was terrible in the country. Farmers were utilizing some conventional agronomic activities for insect/pest control like remotion of old harvest remainders, harvest rotary motion and ploughing the Fieldss. Furadon granules chemical was used for insect control at works to works bases and wide foliages commanding weedicide were sprayed to look into the weeds. Merely 20 per centum husbandmans had got developing in IPM patterns. The country husbandmans kept no record of chemical usage. Chemical were applied manually every bit good as through sprayer. Chemicals are recommended by the agribusiness section every bit good as by the seed/insecticide traders. The excess chemicals were disposed off in the field and besides empty chemical containers are thrown in the field openly. Farmers besides thin their harvest strength manually and this could be the grounds that husbandmans use high seed rate chiefly to averse from low sprouting hazard and besides the cut harvest is being used afterward for farm animal as a fresh fish. The full harvest is harvested manually while threshed with corn Sheller merely by 30 per centum in the country, while about 70 per centum is threshed manually. Average grain production was recorded at approximately 21 maunds per acre for inbred and about 33 maunds per acre for intercrossed corn with 15 to 16 maunds of chaff production per acre. The marketable excess is stored in burlap bags for 3 to 4 months in a cemented room. Shop is whitewashed and besides fumigated with phostoxine and/or DTI. Farmer – extension linkages were found weak. Farmers normally visit extension staff offices but extension staff seldom visits husbandmans ‘ Fieldss during the full season of harvest. Based on the findings of the survey, it is recommended that dirt and H2O proving research lab must be established at least at circle degree in order to acquire dirt and H2O trial and complete food map in order to acquire proper cognition of input usage. Hybrid seed and certified inbred seed must be ensured. Farmers should be trained in IPM techniques for larning about judicial usage of chemicals, threshold degrees for different insect species and designation between harmful and good insects. An Information Exchange Forum ( IEF ) should be established to beef up farmer – extension linkages through keeping biweekly or monthly meetings. Extensive preparation plans are indispensable to increase husbandmans efficiency through achieving maximal productiveness degrees.

An Investigation into Market Integration for Selected Fruits and Vegetables among Muzaffarabad, Rawalpindi and Mansehra Markets

This survey was aimed to analyze the market integrating for fruits and veggies among Muzaffarabad, Mansehra, and Rawalpindi markets. The survey was conducted on secondary informations which collected from monetary value control commissions of selected markets. The selected fruits and veggies included in the survey are onions, tomato, murphy, Brassica oleracea botrytis, and Allium sativum for veggies ; and Apple ( kalakulu ) , Apple ( aureate ) , and banana for fruits. The bi-variate econometric theoretical account was used to happen out the market integrating. The fluctuation of monetary values in Rawalpindi market was higher than other two markets for murphy but the average monetary value in Mansehra market was lower than the other two. However, the average monetary values of tomato among three markets were near about the same. The monetary value fluctuations of tomato monetary values in three markets show that the monetary value of Rawalpindi market was on its maximal degree among three markets. The average monetary value of onion at Rawalpindi market was at the lowest than of all markets. There was higher alteration in garlic monetary values among the three markets. The maximal monetary value of Allium sativum at Muzaffarabad and Rawalpindi markets were the same. The average monetary values of Brassica oleracea botrytis in Mansehra market were lower than the Muzaffarabad and Rawalpindi markets.

The average monetary values of Apple ( kalakulu ) among the three markets were found different. The monetary value fluctuations of Apple ( kalakulu ) in three markets show that the monetary values at Rawalpindi market goes on its maximal degree among three markets. However, the average monetary value of Apple ( Golden ) in Mansehra market is lower than the other markets, whereas the average monetary value of Banana in Muzaffarabad was higher than the other two markets.

Econometric analysis revealed that murphy monetary values were partly transmitted from Muzaffarabad to Rawalpindi market and there was no difference in the transshipment cost between the two markets. Like Muzaffarabad, the monetary value transmittal from Rawalpindi to Muzaffarabad market was besides partial. It was besides observed that Rawalpindi Muzaffarabad markets were non to the full integrated for murphy.

The flow of monetary value information from Rawalpindi, Mansehra and Muzaffarabad markets was partial. For illustration, these markets are partly integrated with each other for fruits and veggies and non to the full integrated for banana and Apple ( aureate ) in Mansehra but the markets of Muzaffarabad and Rawalpindi are to the full integrated.

It is suggested that authoritiess should analyze and circulate market information particularly monetary values on day-to-day or hebdomadal footing to better selling efficiency and accordingly bringing of just merchandise monetary values. The hapless market integrating reveals that markets are non rather competitory. This necessitates extended authorities intercessions to better fight and enhance market efficiency. Since there is no individual regular fruits and veggies market in AJ & A ; K, so authorities should set up fruits and veggies market in public sector for the improvement of manufacturers and consumers.

An Appraisal of Absolute Poverty: A Case Study of District Muzaffarabad, AJK

In this survey the thermal consumption construct under absolute poorness was used for appraisal of poorness in District Muzaffarabad. In this attack, poorness is defined in-terms of a nutrient poorness line that reflects the minimal nutrient outgo needed to accomplish the lower limit needed degree of thermal consumption. For this intent, monthly informations on nutrient ingestion was collected from the respondents. The consequences indicate that the mean per capita energy consumption in District Muzaffarabad was 2298 kg Calories per twenty-four hours. The per centum difference with Recommended Dietary Allowance ( RDA ) of District Muzaffarabad was -2.2 per centum, which means that District Muzaffarabad is 2.2 per centum deficient in energy. The mean per capita protein consumption in AJK was 60.7 gram. per twenty-four hours whereas ; Recommended Dietary Allowance is 55 gram. per twenty-four hours. The per centum difference with RDA of District Muzaffarabad was 10.4 per centum, which means that in District Muzaffarabad the consumption is 10.4 per centum higher than RDA. The mean per capita Ca consumption in District Muzaffarabad was 582.3 mg. per twenty-four hours while the per capita Recommended Dietary Allowance of Ca is 983.3 milligram. The per centum difference with RDA of District Muzaffarabad was -40.8 per centum, which means that 40.8 per centum lack is noticed in Ca consumption in District Muzaffarabad. The consequences besides show that except Punjab all the states including District Muzaffarabad are lacking in Ca consumption. In District Muzaffarabad, the mean per capita vitamin-A consumption was 1097.8 micro gm per twenty-four hours whereas, their per centum difference with RDA was -76.9 per centum. This shows that District Muzaffarabad is 76.9 per centum deficient in vitamin-A. It is apparent from the survey that the consumptions of energy, Iron, Ca and vitamin-A in District Muzaffarabad were below the Recommended Dietary Allowance ( RDA ) whereas, protein consumption was above the RDA.A It shows that AJK is lacking in consumptions of energy, Iron, Ca and vitamin-A except protein. The per centum difference with RDA of energy, protein, Iron, Ca and vitamin-A were -2.2, 10.4, -25, -40.8 & A ; -76.9, severally. The people of District Muzaffarabad should concentrate on such nutrients points which contain abundant of energy, Iron, Ca and vitamin-A, whereas they should cut down protein rich nutrients. The transcending maximal day-to-day protein intake could cut down the athletic public presentation and have an unwanted consequence on wellness. In short, the people should eat balance nutrient points to keep their good wellness. For this purpose authorities of District Muzaffarabad should make consciousness among the people though preparation, seminars/workshops and electronic media every bit good as print media.