Affect of negative reinforcement on consumer behavior

Cigarette smoke contains more than 4,000 harmful chemicals including over 40 that are known causes of malignant neoplastic disease. Smoking is a premier factor in bosom onslaughts and causes malignant neoplastic disease of the lungs, oral cavity and vesica. Passive smoke is the term used for exposure to tobacco fume, or the chemicals in baccy fume, without really smoking. That is even more unsafe for non-smokers. Harmonizing to tobacco users, smoke is habit-forming, enjoyable, helps in cut downing tenseness and gives relaxation to mind. These factors are merely for clip being but in the long tally it is deleterious to wellness. Harmonizing to the planetary smoke statistic for 2002 “ Among immature teens ( aged 13 to 15 ) , approximately one in five fumes worldwide ” , which shows that among all tobacco users, this wont is largely acquired by the immature age kids even though it is banned to sell anyone who is under the age of 18. Around the universe, legislators are difficult at work to do it more hard for people to bask their worst wont of smoke. By puting heavy responsibilities and revenue enhancements on coffin nails and with the aid of other anti smoke runs, they are seeking to degrade tobacco users to purchase coffin nails. Still the major companies such as Pakistan Tobacco Company and Phillip Morris International are still bring forthing their net incomes by selling coffin nails. And people are still attracted towards smoking.

Background Information:

Harmonizing to archeologists, the first known hints of baccy come from around 6000 BC. Smoking is a pattern in which a substance, most normally baccy is burned and the fume inhaled. Earlier smoke was counted as a symbol of attractive force and becomes a native civilization. There was a clip when the smoke advertizements became a viral run. Billboards were seen on every street. Baseball clubs were filled with the fume of coffin nails. Smoking became a position symbol. Till early 60 ‘s the advertizements were on their extremum, where smoke was appreciated. Ads played a major function in act uponing the grownups to smoke. In 1960 ‘s for the first clip in the history physicians recognize the marks of smoking effects in edifice malignant neoplastic diseases.

Problem Development:

The ratio of tobacco users in the decease rates increases more than the decease with other agencies of diseases. Ads were banned on media. Billboard advertizements were shutdown. Increase the revenue enhancements on the monetary values of coffin nails. Topographic point notes on coffin nail packages against smoking from ministry of wellness. To do this run more affected, authorities forced all baccy companies to hold images of cancerous diseases on the smoke packages to de-motivate the tobacco users and the kids who are at their early age of smoke. This consequences in lessening in smoking ingestion on a lower degree. But on a long tally the consequence was negligible. Consumption of coffin nails is kept on lifting steeply. In my research I am traveling to happen out whether there is any effectual consequence of these negative supports on the tobacco users every bit good as non-smokers on their purchasing behavior. Does it truly impact the people who are come ining in smoke and the 1s who are the active tobacco users? It is true that smoking ingestion is decreased a small spot but it is due to the negative support or the purchasing power of the consumers decreases as in some states like Pakistan, it is economically acquiring weak. As everyone is cognizant of its terminal consequence still smoke is so common. To happen out the grounds that negative support is how far affectional, my research includes the interviews with the tobacco users and non-smokers every bit good as the retail merchants of coffin nails.

Related Definitions

Consumer Behaviour

It is the survey of when, why, how, and where people do or make non purchase a merchandise. It surveies features of single consumers such as demographics and behavioral variables in an effort to understand people ‘s wants. It besides tries to measure influences on the consumer from groups such as household, friends, mention groups, and society in general.

Monetary value

Market value, or agreed exchange value, that will buy a definite measure, weight, or other step of a good or service.


Education is the wealth of cognition acquired by an person after analyzing peculiar capable affairs or sing life lessons that provide an apprehension of something.


Age is the period of clip that a individual, animate being, or works has lived or is expected to populate.


Gender is the division of people into two classs, “ work forces ” and “ adult females. “ A Through interaction with caretakers, socialisation in childhood, equal force per unit area in adolescence, and gendered work and household functions adult females and work forces are socially constructed to be different in behavior, attitudes, and emotions.


In general, “ media ” refers to assorted agencies of communicating. For illustration, telecasting, wireless, and the newspaper are different types of media. The term can besides be used as a corporate noun for the imperativeness or intelligence coverage bureaus.

Health attention

Health attention is the bar, intervention, and direction of unwellness and the saving of mental and physical wellbeing through the services offered by the medical and allied wellness professions.


Handiness is the feature of a resource that is committable, operable, or useable upon demand to execute its designated or required map.

Literature Review

Smoke is the most widespread habit-forming behavior in today ‘s society. ( Chaloupka, 1991 ) used the theoretical theoretical account to understand the rational habit-forming behavior of the tobacco users by connoting the demand equation ensuing through the maximal use. And the Cigarette ingestion informations used for the demand equation was taken from the National Health and nutrition scrutiny Survey. Real monetary values were used in the theoretical theoretical account to acquire the exact consequence. Current ingestion has been decreased due to the intensive addition in monetary values of coffin nails as compared to the monetary values of older times.

In 1968-70 there was a drastic decrease in the smoke ingestion due to the anti-smoking ads on Television and wireless. These ads were really effectual in the short tally but in the long tally the success of the anti-smoking ads gave birth to more hard-core tobacco users ( Warner, 1977 ) . Further focal point diverted to wellness educational plans, chiefly concentrating the grownup tobacco users, pregnant adult females and kids ( Hu, Sung & A ; Keeler, 1995 ) . Cancer of oral cavity and lungs are most common in regular tobacco users. Male and female both are holding about an equal portion in the deceases through smoke. The mean age of a tobacco user is between 35 to 69. Mouth malignant neoplastic disease that is caused by the presence of 300 carcinogens in the baccy fume that are H2O soluble, mix with the spit and ruptures the interior walls of the oral cavity ( Johnson, 2001 ) .

Smoke is going so common that even the underage kids are acquiring into it. They can easy acknowledge the trade name of the coffin nails. Prevention is more effectual mean of cut downing the ingestion of baccy fume. It is easy to halt the adolescent tobacco users as they are non yet habit-forming to it at that early age. As if this measure is non taken sagely, bulk of them will go on smoke in the grownup goon. So to do it deserving, anti-smoking runs should be introduced in the schools and do kids cognizant of smoking risky results, ab initio by stating that smoke is bad for heath. Alternatively of penalizing the immature tobacco users help them in acquiring out of this bad wont ( Mermelstein, 2003 ) . Another survey design used to contrast the cognition and the smoke behavior of the pupils for three back-to-back old ages where they were taught that smoke is deleterious for wellness. The consciousness they get through that clip span was helpful, non merely to their ain ego but even to their households ( Murray, Swan & A ; Clarke, 1984 ) . Researchers found that consciousness among all trade names advertisement symbols is straight related to the age. Children are larning so fast in the instance of coffin nail smoke that they can easy distinguish between the trade names of different coffin nails. ( Henke, 1995 ) used chi-square trial to look into how age is related to consciousness of trade name advertisement and a map of attending and memory.

Another factor that increased the ingestion degree in the grownups is through cyberspace coffin nail buying. Smokers find it easy to cover on cyberspace. While sitting at their places cigarette packages are delivered to them. Buying through cyberspace is attractive due to the less monetary value of coffin nail. It is due to the absence of such high revenue enhancements. As this merchandising and buying is done across the boundary lines, tobacco users prefer it to purchase from the state where the revenue enhancements are low. To deter this, province and the federal authorities should seek to place the cyberspace coffin nail sellers and take serious actions against them ( Hrywna, Delnevo & A ; Staniewska, 2004 ) .

Problem Definition:

To analyze the impact of monetary value, instruction, age, gender, media, handiness and wellness auto on consumer behavior.

Statement of survey aims:

Monetary value

( Chaloupka, 1991 )

Enforcing revenue enhancement

Theoretical FrameworkEducation

( Murray, Swan, Clarke, 1984 )




( Warner, 1977 )


Anti runs through advertizements



( Henke, 1995 )

Different impact on different age groups


( Hrywna, Delnevo, Staniewska, 2004 )

In the range of consumer

Health attention

( Mermelstein, 2003 )

Health witting



( Johnson, 2001 )

constructed to be different in behavior, attitudes, and emotions

Monetary value

H0: Addition in monetary value does non hold a important consequence on consumer behavior.

H1: Addition in monetary value has a important consequence on consumer behavior.


H0: acquisition and consciousness does non hold a important consequence on consumer behavior.

H1: acquisition and consciousness has a important consequence on consumer behavior.


H0: Age has no important consequence on consumer behavior.

H1: Age has a important consequence on consumer behavior.


H0: Gender has no important consequence on consumer behavior.

H1: Gender has a important consequence on consumer behavior.


H0: Ads, newspapers and cyberspace have no important consequence on consumer behavior.

H1: Ads, newspapers and cyberspace have a important consequence on consumer behavior.


H0: Availability has no important consequence on consumer behavior.

H1: Handiness has a important consequence on consumer behavior.

Health attention

H0: Health attention has no important consequence on consumer behavior.

H1: Health attention has a important consequence on consumer behavior.

Variable Mentions List:

Chaloupka, ( 1991 ) . Rational Addictive Behaviour and Cigarette Smoking. The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 99, No. 4. pp. 722-742. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //

Henke, ( 1995 ) . Young Children ‘s Percepts of Cigarette Brand Advertising Symbols: Awareness, Affect, and Target Market Identification. Journal of Advertising, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 13-28. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //

Hrywna, Delnevo & A ; Staniewska, ( 2004 ) . Prevalence and Correlates of Internet Cigarette Purchasing among Adult Smokers in New Jersey. Tobacco Control, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 296-300. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //

Johnson, ( 2001 ) . Tobacco Use and Oral Cancer: A Global Perspective. Journal of Dental Education, Vol.65, No.4

Mermelstein, ( 2003 ) . Adolescent Smoking Cessation. Tobacco Control, Supplement 1: Inventions in Youth Tobacco Control. Proceedings of a Conference Held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, Vol. 12, pp.i25-i34. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //

Murray, Swan, & A ; Clarke, ( 1979 ) . Long Term Effect of a School Based Antismoking Programme. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 247-252. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //

Warner, ( 1977 ) . The Consequence of the Anti-Smoking Campaign On Cigarette Consumption. AJPH, Vol.67, No.7

Theoretical Justification

All the independent variables in the theoretical model are supported and studied in old surveies. Media played a critical function in downsizing the ingestion of coffin nails chiefly through presenting images of cancerous diseases on the fume battalions. Educated 1s are more concern with their wellness. Education helps in doing consumers more cognizant of smoke ‘s side effects alternatively of attractive force. Smoke is common in both work forces and adult females but specifically work forces are more in smoking wont. . Consumption additions when coffin nails are easy available to the consumers. To degrade the consumers, authorities placed heavy revenue enhancements on coffin nails. Response towards smoke and the anti-campaigns differs between the age groups. Adolescents are more attractive towards this wont ; on the other manus they are the 1s who are more affected by anti runs.

Elementss of Research Design:

Type of Research


Nature of Datas

Primary informations

Study Puting


Unit of measurement of Analysis

Regular tobacco users, non-smokers and the retail merchants.

Mention Time period

November 2010 to April 2011

Survey Research

Questionnaire will be used to happen the expected consequences.

I will utilize the multi arrested development method to see the comparative consequence of variables on the consumer behaviour and which one is the most effectual. And what could be the other stairss that should be taken to better the anti-smoking runs to deter smoke.

Expected Nature of Findingss

It is expected that anti smoking runs such as puting high rate of revenue enhancements, images on the coffin nail package to deter smoke, are non playing an effectual function.

Even so many anti runs are taking topographic point the ingestion graph of smoke is steeply raising.

To see what could be the grounds hidden behind these factors and which ant-smoking run factor is more affectional on the long tally.


Responses from the interviewer can be biased. They may non give the true response to the inquiries and make full the questionnaire randomly.

Time constrain could be another factor.