A Factor Influencing Adoption Of Innovations Economics Essay
The survey has used a descriptive study design. The survey was carried out in Meru County. The survey country was limited to the lower portion of Meru County whose climatic status is suited for Mangifera indicas production. This survey adopted a chance trying method to choose the respondents for the survey. Out of 13,574 husbandmans, bargainers and exporters, 447 husbandmans, 12 bargainers and 2 exporters were indiscriminately selected for interview. Secondary informations used in the survey was collected from the Ministry of Agriculture Offices while primary informations was collected from the respondents utilizing a structured questionnaire with both unfastened and near complete inquiries. In this survey, both qualitative and quantitative informations were used in the analysis. Quantitative informations obtained from the field was analyzed utilizing descriptive and illative techniques. The descriptive techniques adopted were agencies and frequences while the illative technique used were arrested development and correlativity to set up relationship between variables in the survey and illations made. Frequency tabular arraies and charts were used to show the findings.
The survey found out that there were fiscal restraints as a consequence of low income due to cut down Mangifera indica monetary values and deficiency of fiscal support to husbandmans. The survey besides found out that although bulk of the agriculturists and bargainers were cognizant of new inventions, they had non adopted the inventions due to miss of fiscal resources. Chi-square consequences show that fiscal resource has a important association with invention in Mango value concatenation as shown by a value of 120.981 at ( pa‰¤0.001 ) .
The research worker concludes that with such a steady growing in outputs and development in Mangifera indica agriculture in Meru County, Kenyan mango supply concatenation appears to be promising, and particularly, in the acceptance of new inventions. However, there is demand for the authorities to use schemes that will see husbandmans get inducements on their farm green goods every bit good as fiscal support from fiscal establishments ; there is besides need to develop the agriculturists on entrepreneurship.
Cardinal Wordss: Value concatenation, fiscal resources, agribusiness, Mango, acceptance, invention.
The growing in agribusiness has been on the diminution in recent old ages. This has affected fruit agriculture in the state, which has besides continued to worsen merely as the state ‘s general economic system ( World Bank, 2007 ) . The Government of Kenya has put in topographic point and proposed a scheme for regenerating agribusiness, 2004 -2014 with the purpose of raising the sector ‘s growing rate, decrease of unemployment and poorness. This renewing agribusiness scheme aims at accomplishing the state ‘s Millennium Development end of Poverty Reduction ( HCDA, 2008 ) .
The agribusiness industry is a major participant in Kenya ‘s economic system. It contributes about 26 % of the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) and a farther 27 % through linkages with fabrication, distribution and service related sectors. Agriculture provides a support for approximately 70 % of the population. The chief nutrient harvests grown in Kenya are corn, wheat, sorghum, millet, manioc, Irish and Sweet murphies, bananas, Mangifera indicas and other fruits and veggies ( HCDA, 2008 ) The Government of Kenya has put in topographic point and proposed a scheme for regenerating agribusiness, 2004 -2014 with the purpose of raising the sector ‘s growing rate, decrease of unemployment and poorness. This renewing agribusiness scheme aims at accomplishing the state ‘s Millennium Development end of Poverty Reduction ( HCDA, 2008 ) .
Despite the scheme, the agricultural sector continues to confront major challenges impacting the value concatenation chiefly due to hapless productiveness, hapless land usage, deficiency of markets and value add-on. The improved procedures at all phases of the value concatenation, from the farm to the consumer, will do important parts to an efficient and effectual endeavor, with increased profitableness at the small-scale production degree and at the same clip help quality and safe Mangifera indicas and Mangifera indica merchandises to the Kenyan consumers at low-cost monetary values. Harmonizing to the ROK ( 2009 ) , value concatenation analysis can beef up the invention procedure by finding the part of each histrion with a position to maximising synergisms and complementarities between histrions.
Mango processing in Kenya has non expanded, and merely a negligible portion of entire production is presently processed. Merely one comparatively large-size Mangifera indica processing house based in Coast Province processes local merchandises. Other local juice and jam shapers import Mangifera indicas in the signifier of dressed ores chiefly from Mauritius, Egypt and South Africa. In rule, hence, there is possible for increasing the processing of local merchandises. Local production, nevertheless, is of low quality. Ninety-five per centum of Mangifera indica produced in Kenya is made up of autochthonal assortments. In respect to this, there is need to follow new inventions along mango supply concatenation to better both the production and processing ( FAO, 2008 ) .
Mangos in Meru County have been grown for over 50 old ages. During every Mangifera indica crop season, 39 % of Mangifera indicas travel to blow by decomposing, ( ABD/DANIDA study study, 2010 ) . Inventions to collar this state of affairs exist in the state and outside the state ( Owino, 2009 ) .
A survey by Nchinda and Mendi in Cameroon found out that SexA , Start capital and instruction degree influenced acceptance. Other surveies by Mussei et Al. ( 2001 ) in Tanzania, Getahun et Al. ( 2000 ) in Ethiopia and Abd El-Razek ( 2002 ) found factors such as fiscal resources and developing influenced engineering acceptance. From research worker ‘s observations, no survey has been done in the Kenyan context and particularly among mango husbandmans to seek and set up the factors impacting acceptance of engineerings along the Mangifera indica value concatenation.
This intent of the survey will be:
To find whether fiscal resources influences acceptance of inventions along the Mangifera indica value concatenation in Meru County.
H0: Fiscal Resources is non associated with invention, and
H1: Fiscal Resources is associated with invention.
Review of Related Literature
Fiscal resources amongst mango husbandmans are largely from income got from selling the Mangifera indicas to the market. Income is the most of import index of the economic position of a husbandman. It is, nevertheless, hard to roll up dependable information on income from husbandmans. This is one of the grounds why fewer surveies have attempted to associate income to the acceptance behavior husbandmans ( Shahin, 2004 ) . Assorted surveies nevertheless have examined the relationship between the two variables and found income to be positively related with the acceptance of agricultural inventions.
Surveies by, Abd El-Razek ( 2002 ) in Iraq on acceptance of engineering in Wheat harvest, Mussei et Al. ( 2001 ) in Tanzania on improved Wheat, Getahun et Al. ( 2000 ) in Ethiopia on improved corn agriculture and in Tanzania on usage of fertiliser, Negatu and Parikh ( 1999 ) in Ethiopia on improved Wheat, Bembridge and Tshikolomo ( 1998 ) in Phaswana on acceptance of harvest assortment and Ayuk ( 1997 ) in Burkina Faso on acceptance of unrecorded hedges reported a important positive relationship between the two variables. On other manus few surveies stated no relationship between the two variables. Example of these survey were, Alsakran ( 2001 ) , El-Gannam ( 2000 ) , Madhukar and Ram ( 1996 ) , and Singh et Al. ( 1993 ) .
Harmonizing to Shahin ( 2004 ) , husbandmans who have entree to recognition can loosen up their fiscal restraints and hence purchase inputs. It is expected that entree to recognition will increase the chance of following engineerings. Mussei et Al. ( 2001 ) in Tanzania, found all non-adopters ( 95 % ) of adoptive parents had hard obtaining recognition.
Bulale ( 2000 ) found the consequence of recognition, measured as a recognition provided for families, was entirely used for harvest production inputs ( chiefly for fertilizers ) , and therefore had no important influence on the acceptance of all dairy production engineerings studied.
Freeman et Al. ( 1996 ) observed the influence of recognition on husbandmans ‘ investing and production determinations among smallholder dairy manufacturers in Ethiopia. Two surveies by, and Jabbar et Al. ( 1998 ) found positive relationship between the two variables.
In Rwanda in Kiruhura territory, nevertheless, 55 % of the husbandmans interviewed stressed that entree to recognition was one of the cardinal factors that limited their consumption ( Nsabimana & A ; Masabo1, 2005 ) .
Odoemenem and Obinne, ( 2010 ) in Nigeria, found out that the cereal husbandmans who accessed recognition adopted more of the invention than those who did non. The recognition was to ease purchasing of inputs and better direction patterns. The above surveies show that entree to capital is cardinal to acceptance of invention.
This research was guided by the methodological analysis used by Nchinda and Mendi ( 2008 ) in the survey of yoghurt engineering acceptance in the western Highlandss of Cameroon.
This survey assumed participatory action research to develop advanced engineerings and merchandises associated with Mangifera indicas. Baseline study was done.
The survey territories included the former Meru Central and Meru North Districts presently known as Meru County. The County lies to the E of Mt. Kenya whose extremum cuts through the southwest boundary line of the County. To the North East it borders Laikipia county, to the West it borders Nyeri and Kirinyaga counties, Tharaka Nithi county in the South and Isiolo county to the North.
Participant ( Subject ) Features
The survey was concentrated on seven divisions, which are extremely productive in Mangifera indicas as shown in Table 3.1.
Table: 3.1 Study Areas ( Survey figures, 2010 )
Area under Mangifera indica per hour angle.
Mt ( 2010 )
Number of husbandmans
Beginning MOA, 2010
The survey country was limited to the lower portion of the County whose climatic status favours the production of Mangifera indicas. The population of the survey included single Mangifera indica husbandmans, bargainers and exporters in Meru County. The Mangifera indica husbandmans are about to be 13,442, bargainers are 120, while exporters were 12 ( MOA Survey, 2000 ) . Therefore, the mark population for the survey was 13,574 bargainers, husbandmans and exporters.
The Population of Mango husbandmans in the county was estimated at 13,454. Since the population is big ( above 10,000 ) , the undermentioned expression was adopted to cipher the sample size of husbandmans.
A sample size of 447 Mangifera indicas farmers/ agriculturists was established.
A graded random trying technique was used to acquire a sample size of bargainers and exporters since the mark population was non homogenous. The research worker hence sub-divided it into groups or strata in order to obtain a representative sample. From the above population of 13 thousand five 100s and seventy four, 10 % from both bargainers and exporters, giving each point in the population an equal chance of being selected. This generated a sample size of 461 respondents from whom the survey sought information. Table 3.2 below gives sum-up of the sample size.
Table 3.2 Sample Size
Population ( Frequency ) ( N )
Sample ( N )
The questionnaires were so distributed through the ministry ‘s division central office. Out of the mark population, 447 questionnaires were administered to 447 husbandmans, 12 bargainers and 2 exporters. Out of the 447 questionnaires distributed, 296 questionnaires were returned with 283 coming from husbandmans, 12 from bargainers and one from an exporter.
Measures and Covariates
Primary informations ( mainly information on factors act uponing acceptance ) were collected from the respondents through questionnaires. Structured questionnaire with both unfastened and near complete inquiries were the cardinal instruments used in roll uping primary informations from the respondents. The questionnaire was pre-tested before being administered to the respondents.
Quantitative informations obtained from the field was coded utilizing the SPSS and analyzed utilizing descriptive and illative techniques. Descriptive techniques were adopted utilizing frequences to demo the inclination of happening between survey variables. Inferential techniques like arrested developments were used so as to set up the relationship between variables in the survey and illations made.
A logit analysis was used to find whether acceptance of invention is influenced by entrepreneurial, fiscal, selling and preparation accomplishments. Logit arrested development is used to find the chance of happening of an event with the presence of its determiners by suiting the information on a chance curve. A Logit theoretical account was found suited by Nchinda and Mendi, ( 2008 ) who used the same attack to look into the factors act uponing acceptance of milk engineering in Cameroon.
The Logit theoretical account was conducted by transforming ‘innovation acceptance ‘ variable into binary ( 1 = adopted invention, 0 = has non adopted invention ) . Logit arrested development was preferred as it is non affected by other factors such as consecutive autocorrelations and would, therefore, have a better presentation of the anticipation.
Innovation ( I ) was the dependent variable while entrepreneurial accomplishments ( X1 ) , fiscal resources ( X2 ) , severally were the independent variables. These variables were measured based on the respondents ‘ understanding or dissension with the variable indexs whereby understanding was accorded value 1 and disagreement value 0. The analysis was done as shown below:
… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..eqn 1.2
Y = the dependants variable ( Adaptation of mongo engineering – yes/no by husbandmans )
Xi’s=Independent Variables ( Financial Resource )
I± = Constants
I?j = parametric quantity estimations matching to Xj ‘s.
??-S = exponential ( changeless = 2.71 )
On fiscal resources, the survey shows that 7.4 % of agriculturists earned a net income of less than Ksh 10,000 per acre per twelvemonth while, 41.3 % of agriculturists earned a net income, of between Ksh 10,001and 20,000. Majority ( 51.3 % ) of the agriculturists earned more than Ksh 20,000 per annum. The tabular array therefore reveals that the higher the net income ( more than ksh 20,000 per acre, per annum ) , the higher the acceptance rate ( 59 % ) . The less the net income per acre, per annum ( Ksh 10,001- 20,000 ) , the less the acceptance rate ( 24 % ) . However, 43 % of the agriculturists did non follow the inventions and 57 % adopted the inventions. This is confirmed by other consequences which show that agriculturists do non easy entree formal or informal recognition and the alternate income they get, is non invested in the Mangifera indica value concatenation for inventions.
Consequences from the trader/exporter, shows that 23.1 % of traders/exporters earned a net income of Ksh10,000 per twelvemonth. While, an equal per centum of trader/exporter earned net income of Ksh10,001 and Ksh 20,000. Majority ( 53.8 % ) of trader/exporter earned income of more than Ksh 20,000 per twelvemonth. The higher the net income ( above Ksh 20,000 ) , the higher the acceptance ( 71 % ) . The less the net income ( Ksh10,001- 20,000 ) , the less the acceptance ( 33.3 % ) .
The survey further shows that 62 % of trader/exporter adopted inventions and 38 % did non follow inventions. Comparing both the agriculturist and traders/exporters, indicates that the higher the net income, the higher the acceptance and vise versa. The trader/exporter had high ( 62 % ) acceptance rate, while the agriculturist had 38 % acceptance rate. So, one could reason that fiscal resources greatly influence invention acceptance.
The survey conducted a logit arrested development analysis to set up the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. The aim was to demo the relationship between fiscal resources, entrepreneurial accomplishments and the acceptance of inventions along the Mangifera indica value concatenation. The same attack was used by Nchinda and Mendi, ( 2008 ) . This survey by Nchinda and Mendi, ( 2008 ) has been critically reviewed in the literature as it guided our survey methodologically. Table 4.1 indicates the sum-up of logit theoretical account.
Table 4.1: Logit Model Results
-2 Log likeliness
Cox & A ; Snell R Square
Nagelkerke R Square
The -2*log likeliness ( 373.193 ) in the Logit theoretical account sum-up ( Model 1 ) is used in comparings of nested theoretical accounts. Cox and Snell and Nagelkerke R-square had values of 0.065 and 0.086 severally. The survey gives two steps of R-square which show a low goodness of tantrum in the arrested development theoretical account. That is, the Logit theoretical account has a low coefficient of finding and the independent variables would do a paltry 6.5 % or 8.6 % fluctuations in engineering acceptance. The regards of these per centums are caused by other factors non in the Logit theoretical account.
In theoretical account 2, the -2*log likelihood value of 5.004 was established. Cox and Snell and Nagelkerke R-square had values of 0.572 and 0.807 severally. These two R-square values illustrate a high goodness of tantrum in the Logit theoretical account. The Logit theoretical account shows that 80.7 % fluctuations in invention acceptance is brought about by fluctuations in the independent variables. As shown by the Table above, finance and entrepreneurship, of traders/exporters would make more invention than it would for agriculturists.
Table 4.15: Logit Model Coefficients
Exp ( B )
Model 1: Agriculturists
Model 2: Traders/ Exporters
a. Variable ( s ) entered on step1: Fiscal Resources, Entrepreneurial Skills
From Table above, the Logit theoretical account ( Model 1 ) becomes:
Logit ( I ) = I/ ( 1-I ) = -1.148 + 1.228 ( Fin )
Model 1 reveals that finance, keeping other factors changeless, would take to a 1.228 factor addition in innovation acceptance. Fiscal resources have a important positive consequence on invention. This means that agriculturists with high fiscal resources would be more advanced.
From 2nd Logit theoretical account ( Model 2 ) becomes:
Logit ( I ) = I/ ( 1-I ) = 42.365 + 19.286 ( Fin )
The Logit theoretical account shows that, when other factors are held changeless, fiscal resources would increase acceptance of invention by 19.286 This depicts that, fiscal resources addition acceptance of invention. However, these consequences are non important and can non be relied on as population parametric quantity as shown by the p-values. For traders/exporters, these factors do non independently act upon invention to any grade of certainty.
Chi-square trial was used to find whether an association ( or relationship ) between independent and dependent variables in the sample is likely to reflect a existent association between these variables in the population.
Table 4.16 Chi-Square – Invention and Independent Variables
Degrees of Freedom ( df )
Asymp. Sig. ( 2-sided )
On theoretical account 1 for agriculturists, fiscal resource has an association of invention in Mango value concatenation. This is shown by a chi-square value of 120.981 at ( pa‰¤0.001 ) . A additive by additive association exists every bit indicated by a value of 13.713 at ( pa‰¤0.001 ) . The void hypothesis one is therefore rejected and alternate hypothesis accepted.
In traders/exporters positions, ( Model 2 ) indicates that fiscal resource has no chi-square association with invention in Mango value concatenation. This is shown by a chi-square value of 8.580 at ( p=0.199 ) , that is. P & gt ; 0.05. A additive by additive association between the two variables does non be as indicated by a value of 3.357 at ( p=0.067 ) .
The survey consequences show that 62 % of trader/exporter adopted inventions and 38 % did non follow inventions. Comparing both the agriculturist and traders/exporters, indicates that the higher the net income, the higher the acceptance and vise versa. The trader/exporter had high ( 62 % ) acceptance rate, while the agriculturist had 38 % acceptance rate. It can hence be concluded that fiscal resources greatly influence invention acceptance. Harmonizing to Shahin ( 2004 ) , husbandmans who have entree to recognition can loosen up their fiscal restraints and hence purchase inputs. It is expected that entree to recognition would increase the chance of following engineerings. The findings of this survey are in line with those of Abd El-Razek ( 2002 ) in Iraq, Mussei et Al. ( 2001 ) in Tanzania, Getahun et Al. ( 2000 ) in Ethiopia and Ayuk ( 1997 ) in Burkina Faso had examined the relationship between the two variables and found income to be positively related with the acceptance of agricultural inventions.
The survey found out that the rate of acceptance of invention in traders/exporters is higher ( 86 % ) than the one of agriculturists ( 66.7 % ) . However, 14 % of traders/exporters and 96.8 % of agriculturists did non follow inventions. One can reason that entrepreneurial accomplishments play a function in acceptance of inventions.
Fiscal resources were found to hold a positive important consequence on invention. Fiscal restraints are as a consequence of low income due to cut down Mangifera indica monetary values and deficiency of diverse markets. Mango husbandmans in Meru County besides lack fiscal support from fiscal establishments. The low monetary value of Mangifera indica green goods is the cause of husbandmans ‘ variegation to other income bring forthing activities such as dairy agriculture and other alternate concerns. The local fiscal establishments should do deliberate effort to travel to the rural countries to educate agriculturists and traders/exporters on investings and funding of the investings.
I would wish to thank the Almighty God for giving me good wellness and the chance to analyze. Second, I am thankful to my supervisors Dr. C.Ombuki and Dr. D.Mbogori for their of all time seasonably advice. Their insightful remarks helped vastly in determining this thesis. However, I hasten to all that any defects are entirely mine. ( I take duty for all the defects ) . I am every bit widening my gratitude to the MT. Kenya University for administrative aid. Worthy adverting excessively are the work forces and adult females who helped in typewriting, redacting and publishing this papers. To all I return every spot of thanks. Finally, I salute the members of my household for moral, stuff and fiscal support.